In aquarium filtration, it is not just the process of collecting trash from the water column. We rather, not filtering, but Good ConditionsConditioning. When the water is “vacuumed”, the conditions for life in the aquarium are created. This is a process to create a favorable environment.
You can filter the water in different ways. The photo shows the two most common ones. Collected filters Eheim for mechanical and biological filtration.
It will be about external filters: internal filters are too small to see the effect of their work.
Aquarium filtration can be mechanical
This is just a vacuum cleaner. Fill the filter with materials that effectively collect garbage from the water column. Sponges, padding cotton, etc.
First, along the water flow, coarse fillers are placed in the filter, followed by fine cleaning. Is logical. First, large garbage is collected, then small.
Filtration can be chemical
There are chemical elements that tend to adhere to hard surfaces. To use this property, we need porous materials. The looser and porous the filler, the greater its surface. For this purpose, activated charcoal is used. What would this porosity longer preserved and clogged with silt not immediately, such fillers are better to have the last step in the filtration system.
Coal is used to remove residual drugs after treatment. To improve the quality of water, it can be used continuously. Once a month it needs to be replaced. Otherwise, everything that he saved, can sharply give back.
And you can filter biologically
It is known that useful bacteria live in the aquarium. Properly they are called aerobic bacteria. The trick is that these bacteria in the water is extremely small. Such creatures live on surfaces: on the walls of an aquarium, on decorations, stones, soil, etc. Their most important habitat is the filter. They are well there because of the constant moderate flow of water.
If we put something loose and porous in the filter, we can nemeryanno increase the surface area. For example, bioschars as in the photo above. So we will cultivate these most notorious aerobic bacteria much more. Water will be cleaner from nitrogen compounds. Fish will be stronger and healthier.
Different filters are needed,
all sorts of filters are important.
As you understand, there is not any of these filtrations in their pure form. All the same, the chemical filter will be biological (we will not remove bacteria from it). A biological filter will still collect the waste mechanically. Nevertheless, we can play with it.
If your aquarium is still quite large, there are at least three hundred liters, it has a large slide made of sandstone, there are corals and seven small fish (about 5 cm to 7) are planted with pieces, then there is no sense to use biological filtration media. Sandstone is quite porous material, so that there is enough bacteria at all. In such an aquarium, the water is unusually clear.
If in an aquarium there is overpopulation or you have acquired expensive and tender fish, for example, discus, then biological filtration should be strengthened. Break the manufacturer’s recommendations and increase the effect every two. Buy not just an external filter, but two external filters and connect them in series. Let the first filter be mechanical, and the second be filled only with biological fillers. The first one should be cleaned regularly, and the second one much less often.
The most effective biofilter
The greatest effect from biofiltration can be achieved by flowing water along the biosubstrate. There is an inconvenience. He makes a noise.
At this you can go for the sake of the marine aquarium. They make columns. In the aquarium hermetically cover part of the space with glass. Water spontaneously over the edge of this overlap falls inside and flows through the bioscharas into the drain made at the bottom of the aquarium inside this column.
Such a homemade biofilter can be found in discus fish breeding and in saltwater aquarium thumbs:
Let’s combine all types of filtering together and collect the most effective and convenient biofilter for a freshwater home aquarium.
The first stage is filled with cylinders. For those that are cheaper, they are not porous. Their goal is not biological filtration. There are such cylinders for biological filtration. They are more expensive, but also fit. We need the first layer to collect large debris (leaves, twigs …) The point is that the holes are large and the water flow through them is a curve.
The second stage, like the first, is also mechanical, but no longer cylinders, but a large sponge. The holes are smaller, but the flow of water is straighter.
The next layer can also be made from a sponge, only fine cleaning, the holes are smaller. But, usually it is not used in this scheme.
Further biological filtration: bio-balls, porous ceramics, lava stones, etc.
The last layer can use activated carbon. Chemical filtration is a good thing, but inconvenient for external filters. The point here is that coal gradually accumulates nitrogen compounds, and then gives them up sharply. It needs to be changed every month, while a good biological filter is better not to touch it. It is usually enough for a year.
In the picture above, the last layer is from a sintepon. This is a fine mechanical cleaning and biofilter at the same time. There are a lot of bacteria there.
about effective biofiltration
Aquarian producer from Germany Eheym (Eheim) on the Discovery Channel.