Water – the source of life, and if we are talking about an aquarium, then it is also a habitat. The life of the creatures will be directly dependent on the quality of the water. In natural conditions, purification takes place with natural filters, in the absence of negative influence from humanity. In a home aquarium, natural cleansing also occurs, but without outside help it is sometimes not just difficult to provide clean water for the inhabitants in a closed pond, but it is also unrealistic. This means that the aquarist needs to take care of biofiltration.
The need for biofiltration in an aquarium
Biofiltration in an aquarium is of great importance. And all because inside there is constantly waste of fish and other inhabitants, decomposing organic residues.
Decomposition, as well as gases emitted by fish, contribute to the formation of ammonia, which, when dissolved, adversely affects the health of living beings. Ammonia and some compounds are poisonous. For fish in an aquarium, the lethal dose of poison is 0.2 mg / liter. For some fish, the maximum content of poison in water is 0.02 mg / liter. But even with such a concentration, the fish will be uncomfortable.
So ammonia should be concentrated in minimal doses, and it is better to be completely absent. But how to remove a toxic substance if it dissolves in water? Replacing water in a pond with parts is the best way to reduce the amount of poison. However, this procedure should not be carried out daily, because it is stressful for the inhabitants and a kind of imbalance.
Here are useful bacteria that process ammonia into nitrates, which do not harm the inhabitants. Biological purification method requires the presence of microorganisms. Even without biofilter bacteria are present in the medium. They neutralize some of the ammonia compounds, but this is not enough. It takes a lot of good bacteria, so that they constantly get rid of toxic substances. The foregoing makes biofiltration necessary.
Biofilter device and types of filter materials
For a start, it is worth mentioning that the filter, which purifies aquarium water only from a biological point of view, was not invented. Any filter holds at least two cleanings: biological and mechanical.
Bacteria should be placed on the substrate water. There are several types of such a substrate or filler for a filter that fits into designated areas:
- Foam filter. Popular materials for the filter – foam rubber and sintepon. They cope with the purification of harmful impurities, as well as create an army of microorganisms. More often such materials are used in internal filters at low load. Their only disadvantage is the rapid accumulation of dirt and blockage, which occurs as a result of the mucus that appears during filtration. Foam rubber needs to be constantly washed, after which the army of bacteria begins to form in a new way.
- Bioceramics filter. In external filters, rings or ceramic tubes often act as fillers. It is an excellent substrate for the formation of beneficial microorganisms, and they also do a good job of spraying water with oxygen. And without oxygen, life is impossible, including for bacteria.
- Plastic filter. In most of the existing filters in the role of filler, small balls of plastic. Water passing through a similar filter is sprayed, which gives a large amount of oxygen to bacteria.
- Glass filter. There is also the option of a filter made of porous glass, which is baked in a special way using a special method of manufacturing. The result is a material with many cells, from which small balls are made. Microorganisms spread rapidly and neutralize toxic substances.
In the modern world there is a huge number of filters with different types of fillers of various forms, as well as combined options, for example, bio-balls made of plastic with an internal sponge.
Video about the choice of biofilters for the aquarium.
Self-design of biological filters
Thanks to the above, you understand how important it is to have a biofilter in each aquarium. If at the moment you do not have the means to purchase a biofilter, then there is also the opportunity to build the necessary device yourself. There are a huge number of options for the design of homemade filters. Their differences in the difficulty of manufacture.
Next will be told how to make a biofilter for the aquarium with your own hands. These are several ways, located on the difficulty of design. Having learned the nuances, you will make any filter using the scheme below, or develop your own device.
- When designing a biofilter for an aquarium, you will need: a 0.5 l bottle, a plastic tube, a pebble, a synthetic winterizer, a compressor with a hose.
The bottle should be divided into the bottom and bowl with neck. The bowl should hardly fit in the bottom. In it from the outside to make holes through which water can flow without problems. Place the tube in the neck. It is necessary that it was placed there with difficulty and there was no distance to the throat. After fixing the tube placed in the bowl in the second part of the bottle. The tube should be of such length that at least slightly to speak over the overall structure, but not to rest on the bottom of the bottle, so that the passage of water is free. Top with up to 7 cm of pebbles, cover with padding polyester. Put the compressor inside the tube and fasten it. After placing the structure in the home water and turn on the compressor. The filter will begin its work, and after the establishment of beneficial microorganisms will be good in neutralizing ammonia compounds.
- Another external biofilter that can be made at home by yourself. A compressor is also needed for this job.
The design is very similar to the previous one. Need to take a bottle of 1-1,5 l. Bottom in a circle using sila to make a lot of holes. They should be low to ensure that the last layers of pebbles receive oxygen. Then fill the pebbles in half. Instead of this filler, you can take any other, better bigger. Place a water dispenser connected to the compressor on top of the filler.
- If in the domestic pond there is already internal mechanical filtration, you can connect the output from it to the tank in which the biofilter filler will be located. In one direction should come clean water, with the opposite to go stale. It turns out a good option, made without too much cost on their own.
- For capacious reservoirs, you can create a biofilter using filters to clean water pipes. Pompy can act pump for the heating system. Combine the flasks in two places, in one there is mechanical filtration, in the other the filler is poured. After the part is combined fittings and hoses for water. The result is a filter with high performance, made budget and easy.
There are many options for the biofilter for the aquarium, but when choosing to pay attention to the performance of the device. It is better to choose a device with a capacity of at least 2 full volumes of water per hour.
Only biofilters will help not to accumulate toxic substances in the aquatic environment, and the information above will help determine the choice of device and provide the inhabitants of the home water body a comfortable and healthy life.
Interesting videos about homemade biofilters for the aquarium