There is a wide variety of water purification devices on the aquarium accessories market, and the canister filter is one of the most common technical devices in this segment. Deciding which filter to buy, it will not be superfluous to know its design, advantages and principle of operation.
Purpose and device
A canister Fish Tank Filter is called this way because its shape really resembles a canister. Due to the fact that it works outside the aquarium, it is classified as an external filter. The device performs a full cycle of water purification, which provides for the presence of all levels of filtration:
The principal device of the device has not changed for several decades. It consists
- from the tank in which the filter material is placed,
- a pump that pumps water
- inlet and outlet hose.
One of the main parts of such a device is, of course, the filter element itself. It usually consists of
- sponges (rough mechanical cleaning),
- fine pore syntepon for fine cleaning,
- biological substrate filler (water biofiltration).
- In some models, a chemical filter is also installed, the role of which can be played either by activated carbon or special resins.
Fillers for the filter.
How does a modern canister filter work?
Outwardly, it looks like this: hoses are attached to the body of the device, they are lowered into the aquarium water. The power wire is plugged into the household outlet, the power button is pressed, the device is working. Everything is very simple. However, it is necessary to imagine what happens at this time inside the device.
At the moment of switching on, the water pump starts to work, and the liquid enters the upper part of the canister through the retractor hose, into the cassette filter, the first level of which is the sponge.
Then the water passes the fine filter and enters the biofilter. There is its purification from ammonia and nitrite.
Fully purified water through a one-way valve enters the cavity between the canister body and the filter cartridge, and then under pressure is fed into the exhaust hose.
Types and brands of canister filters for aquarium
German, Polish, Korean, Chinese companies produce a variety of models for aquariums, which are primarily divided by pump power and, accordingly, performance. The more powerful the pump is, the more water it can pump per unit of time.
There are devices with an external location of the pump, and in many recent models of external filters the pump is located inside the case. Such an arrangement of the working device reduces the noise to a minimum level.
Also, filters differ in overall dimensions, in case capacity, and even in shape. There are canisters not only of classical form, but also cylindrical and square. Of course, different models of devices have different costs.
Which canister cleaner to choose?
The first selection criterion is the price.
You should know that the external filters of the German brand Eheim have the highest cost. Accordingly, their quality and reliability is also at altitude.
The average price position is occupied by products of the brands Aquael (Poland), Sera, JBL, Tetra and Hagen (Germany), Ferplast (Italy). True, almost all the products of these brands are collected in China.
The budget option – models of Chinese brands Atman, Resun and some others. By the way, Atman canisters are quite decent and reliable products, the design of which was developed by American engineers, and released by the Chinese company Chuangxing Electrical Appliances Co.
The second selection criterion is the tank capacity.
And, therefore, the performance of the necessary filter, which is measured in liters per hour. An annotation for each equipment sample indicates which aquarium it is suitable for.
For example, the Polish product Aquael MiniKani 120, designed for an aquarium with a capacity of up to 120 liters, has a pumping capacity of 350 liters per hour. Of course, the power consumption of such a device is much lower than that of a filter with increased performance.
Overall dimensions of the device
As a rule, the host of ornamental fish plans in advance where the external filter will be installed. Often it is put in the cabinet under the aquarium.
Many devices have additional options, such as
- electronic control and adjustment of pump power,
- built-in water heater
- various nozzles for aeration and others. In this case, the choice depends only on the desire of the aquarist himself.
Cleaning the canister filter.
Benefits of Canister Filters
Among the obvious advantages of such devices, you can specify the following:
- ease of use;
- high performance and efficiency;
- availability in service;
- availability of a full filtration cycle;
- durability and reliability.
The range of canister filter models for aquariums is wide. When deciding which device to purchase, it is necessary to understand that such a purchase is made for a rather long period. An efficient and reliable external aquarium water purifier is the guarantee of the health of the aquarium fauna and flora.
Especially for thrifty aquarists video, which details how to make a canister filter with your own hands: