The type of filtration must meet all the needs of fish in an artificial reservoir. To create habitable conditions for aquatic creatures, you need to know how to choose a filter for an aquarium.
Types of filtering devices for the aquarium
Using a filter, polluted water is cleaned by passing through a layer of special material.
There are several ways to filter an aquarium:
Selection of a filtering device for an artificial reservoir depends on the individual needs of all aquatic inhabitants, as well as on the volume of the aquarium.
Pumping water through the filter layer can be carried out using an electric pump or due to the movement of air bubbles that direct the flow of water to the cleaning equipment.
The advantage of the electric filtering method is the versatility and high level of performance. Such devices can be both external installation and internal use. They can be effectively used not only in domestic aquariums, but also in various industrial reservoirs.
Electric filters can be both external and internal.
Air cleaning equipment has a simple mechanism. The advantage of such filters are the minimum energy costs and low cost of the device. Mount them only in the middle of the reservoir. Due to the low productivity, air cleaning devices are used in small aquariums.
Mechanical filters and aquarium filtration
Water purification with this type of filtration is carried out through porous foam material. Contaminated liquid passes through such a filter, leaving debris in the foam rubber layers. Already clean water comes to the aquarium.
The simple design of the mechanical filter helps to trap large particles of waste. To prevent debris from filtering back into the pond, experts recommend regularly cleaning the foam layer. Mechanical cleansing is suitable for a small home aquarium.
Chemical filters and aquarium filtration
The process of cleaning an artificial reservoir by chemical means is carried out using activated carbon or zeolite, which are good absorbents. This type of filter absorbs not only garbage, but also is able to eliminate various foreign chemical substances – ammonia, heavy metals or chlorine. If you regularly update the water in the pond, you can do without chemical cleaning.
Biofilters and biological filtration
Such cleaning is performed by bacteria that develop in the porous layers of a mechanical filter or in ceramic components. Biofilters usually contain microorganisms that process toxic ammonium nitrites into nitrate. The resulting salts of nitric acid are subsequently absorbed by aquatic vegetation.
The biological filter works due to bacteria that develop in the porous layers of a mechanical filter or in ceramic components.
Sometimes combined treatment is used, which may include two or three types of water filtration. The use of absorbent instead of foam rubber in mechanical filtration is also a method of combined removal of contaminants in an aquarium.
How to correctly select the filter for the aquarium
Instruments for water purification in aquariums are distinguished by certain parameters:
- the speed of movement of water through the filter;
- amount of filtering fluid.
This aggregate is characterized by the indicator of the number of liters of water per hour of filtration. The cleaning speed of the device is selected according to the size of the aquarium. For small tanks, high filter performance can create a fast current that can interfere with the quiet movement of the fish.
Different models of filters for the type of installation are divided into two types:
- Interior. The cleaning device is lowered into the water. Used for small aquariums. The maximum amount of water for the internal filter is 200 liters. Included with the device is a compressor. This water purifier is very easy to use. However, a slight inconvenience is the weekly cleaning of the device. It may also interfere with the presence of noise during operation of the internal filter.
- External. Contaminated water enters the device through tubes that lead to a filter installation. After cleaning, the liquid returns to the aquarium. Use the device for reservoirs of more than 100 liters. In very large aquariums, two such filters are sometimes installed.
Internal filtration devices are much cheaper from external cleaners.
How to choose an external filter for the aquarium
There are many different models of exterior cleaners. To correctly select such a device should pay attention to some criteria:
- tightness of the device;
- fastening reliability;
- strength of the components;
- no noise in the cleaning process;
- full set of all filter elements.
- high performance;
- large capacity of components for filtration;
- availability of additional features in some models;
- low noise level.
In addition, the device does not take place in the pond, which allows you to install additional devices inside and create a different decoration in the aquarium. Vernal filter allows water purification at the highest level.
Principles for selecting an internal filter
Such devices have a plastic case with holes through which water is drawn in with a compressor. Inside the filter are elements for cleaning. Some models are supplemented with a water heater and a device for adjusting the temperature or air supply.
Some models have a water heater and a device for adjusting the temperature or air supply.
Such a filter is selected depending on the size of the aquarium and the number of aquatic inhabitants. When choosing an internal device for cleaning the aquarium should pay attention to some factors:
- performance – the higher the speed of movement of water in the reservoir, the better is the cleaning;
- the size of the device – the larger the device, the more material there is for filtering;
- the presence of loud sounds during operation of the device;
- quality component parts.
Some internal filters are released with aeration. For the maintenance of fish with increased requirements, it is better to use external cleaning systems.
Advantages of internal use filters:
- relatively low cost of the device;
- ease of use;
- the ability to pass a large amount of water;
- low power consumption.
The downside for these devices is a low coefficient of performance. Also, the device does not look very harmonious in the aquarium and requires constant cleaning.
The right choice of filter for the aquarium helps to create suitable living conditions for all aquatic inhabitants of an artificial reservoir. For water purification, you should purchase a reliable quality device that meets all the needs of fish and plant environments, taking into account the volume of the aquarium.