A saltwater aquarium is a much more fragile and less stable ecosystem than a freshwater body. Lovers need to maintain at a proper level many hydrochemical indicators of water to ensure decent living conditions for the inhabitants. The best helpers in this – Fish Tank Filters – one of the most important components of aquarium equipment.
How to choose a filter for the aquarium? To do this, you need to decide on its type, installation location, purpose and how ready you are to see it (since the appearance of these devices is not very aesthetic). Devices are divided into several different types, depending on the characteristics of their design and application. In addition, you can also make a homemade filter for an aquarium, simply by studying the principle of operation of various options that are commercially available. Thus, you save money and make a system that will satisfy you fully.
According to the filler and the principle of operation of the device are divided into:
- adsorption chemical
A mechanical filter is a container filled with material through which water passes. It purifies water from suspensions, as well as from turbidity caused by algae and bacteria. Gradually, all organic matter collected from the water and accumulated in the substrate begins to decompose, releasing toxic substances into the water. In order to avoid the accumulation of toxic substances to an unacceptable, life-threatening sea creatures, the concentration, the filler is regularly washed.
Internal recommended to flush more often than external. Understand that the device is polluted can be reduced flow of water that passes through it, and in more modern models for this manometers and flow meters are installed.
To remove organic matter from water, use chemical filters that act on the principle of adsorption. Often, the filler is activated carbon, as well as various adsorbents to remove phosphates, nitrates, etc. The most modern is the flotation device. In order for such a device to perform its function efficiently and without interruption, its filler must be changed regularly.
Biofilters purify water from compounds resulting from the vital activity of organisms. As a rule, it is a pump for constant circulation of water and a substrate in the form of gravel, 7-10 cm or a special sponge, where nitrifying bacteria are located. It should be noted that such devices can not be washed as usual, and even more dry: the bacteria will die. However, for better functioning, it should be placed in running water and provide a large amount of oxygen.
When choosing a device, it is very important to pick it up correctly based on the volume of the tank: its pump should drive the amount of water in 2 hours, and preferably 3 times more than the volume of the aquarium.
It can be placed both inside the reservoir (along the back wall or at the bottom) and outside it. The operation of the pump cannot be interrupted for a long time, otherwise all nitrifying bacteria that perform the main cleaning work will die. This risk is significantly lower when using a model located above the aquarium (wet-dry).
Biofilters are placed after the mechanical and chemical. With proper maintenance, they do not require replacement if they are not physically damaged.
Due to the fact that for processing organic waste a large area of the substrate is needed, on which special bacteria are placed, and the larger the device, the more powerful it is, as a rule, all these types are most effective when installed as external Fish Tank Filters.
This species is used exclusively for cleaning the water of the marine aquarium. The principle of operation is that all the contaminants of organic and inorganic origin are deposited on the surface of the foam. Beating the foam and removing it, the device removes toxic impurities from the water.
Choosing a skimmer you need to pay attention to the height of the glass of its intake, because most of the waste accumulates in the upper layer of water, which is 3 cm.
It’s not easy to make a well-functioning device, so there are companies such as Reef Octopus, Tetra and other manufacturers that produce a lot of different models for every taste to help us. Pennic is placed, as a rule, in the cabinet under the aquarium.
Types of filters depending on placement
How to install a filter in an aquarium? The answer to this question depends on the type of device used at the place of installation. Consider the main three types in more detail:
The bottom filter for an aquarium is a plate with a large number of holes for water circulation. It is located in a centimeter two from the bottom. From under the plate, water is pumped out using a pump. Its greatest advantage lies in its maximum simplicity and efficiency.
However, it is easy to install it only in a new tank. Therefore, for an already populated ecosystem, it will not work: it will be almost impossible to establish. Its maintenance is reduced to cleaning the soil and with its regular carrying out problems do not arise. But, it is worth considering that for cleaning under the device itself, you must first carry out a thorough cleaning of the reservoir. It is not recommended to install bottom filters when using in the marine aquarium of shallow soil and in the presence of small fish that are buried in it.
It is also called submersible. The internal filter for an aquarium is installed directly in a reservoir. With a certain frequency clogs, because of what its throughput decreases, and the degree of purification deteriorates. Here the fillers are: sponges (cellulose is not recommended – they start to rot over time), gravel, ceramics, activated carbon – depending on the cleaning method used in it.
The external filter for an aquarium is similar to the internal one, and differs, for the most part, by its location and volume. Which filter for the aquarium is better – the main question that confronts lovers who are going to get a saltwater aquarium.
Basically, the choice depends on the volume of the reservoir, species of fish and other living creatures with which it is planned to inhabit. The choice of external, not internal, is often due to its greater power and the fact that it does not need to be masked by decorations in the aquarium, as internal.
As a rule, building a system of sequential water purification, they are oriented to ensure that the devices complement each other, as we said, for example, water should be supplied to the biofilter after preliminary mechanical and / or chemical cleaning.
The choice of an external device, as well as the mode of its maintenance, directly depends on the population density of the reservoir and the sensitivity of its inhabitants to pollution.
How to clean the Fish Tank Filter with your hands
Before cleaning, it is important to always disconnect the system from the network. It is necessary to wash out mucus, dirt. In chemical – there must be regular replacement of the filler. Biological species are cleaned with only a partial replacement of the filter material if necessary. It is best to use several biological filters to make it easier to clean each of them alternately.
The most difficult to clean multisection filter, using several different methods of cleaning sea water. He needs to pay special attention. At least once a week wash the mechanical filter.
The necessary skills for maintaining and maintaining an aquarium come with practice. We’ll have to try a little to make your pets feel excellent, and delighted the eye with bright colors and active behavior. Good luck!