Fish Tank Filter is a necessary device in any aquarium.
Filters not only remove pollutants and harmful bacteria from water, but also create, along with compressor, the flow of water in the aquarium (only mechanical filters), mix its layers. When adding certain materials to a filter, it is also able to affect chemical composition of water and spray medicine for fish. And by adding an air-suction tube to the internal mechanical filter, it becomes capable spray in the water and oxygen.
Aquarium can not exist without a filter. In the process of aquarium life, a large amount of organic residues accumulate: food residues, decaying parts of plants, fish excreta, etc., which, if not removed, turn the aquarium biotope into an unusable swamp.
Filters are divided into four groups:
- Mechanical internal
- Mechanical external
The principle of operation of mechanical internal and external filters is about the same.
The basis of the mechanical filter is the filtering material, passing through which, the water leaves in it all large particles that pollute the aquarium. Such a filter consists of two blocks: a filter sponge block and a block responsible for the pump and the ejection of water. Beneficial bacteria breed on the lips of these filters.
The difference between the internal and external filters is that the internal filter is completely under water, and for the external filter the filter element is outside the aquarium.
Traditionally it is considered that external filters are better than internal ones, since their filtering surface is many times larger, they have several stages of water purification, and in addition, putrefactive processes will not occur inside the aquarium. External filters, in contrast to internal filters, are mainly designed for vessels of greater capacity. But external filters are much more expensive than internal ones. External filters, as a rule, create a strong current of water, which may not be very favorable for aquariums, in which the advantage is given to plants.
Mechanical filters remove large residues of underwater organisms, but they are not capable of processing organic substances and their decay products.
Biological filters recycle organic matter and their decay products.
The effect of biological filters is based on the fact that filter materials are a breeding ground for beneficial bacteria. These bacteria process organic matter into inorganic (mainly nitrates), and then these inorganic substances serve as a nutrient medium for plants.
As a rule, these are specialized nozzles / sponges // rings / loose substances when added to a mechanical filter, producing in it the multiplication of specialized bacteria. In a normally balanced aquarium, plants and priming are a natural biological filter.
Bottom, or subgravial, filter it is applied, as a rule, as an additional filter or in small vessels. This is a plastic mesh installed under the ground. Under it through the ground flocks of vital activity of aquarium organisms, then removed. The disadvantage of this type of filter is that, over time, not only the smallest waste, but also small pieces of soil and other useful substances begin to penetrate its grid, making it useless. Therefore, it is recommended to use it only in very small containers, where there is no possibility to install another filter, or as an addition to the main filter, taking into account that the soil will have to be sorted out regularly, for normal functioning of the bottom filter.
What type of filter to choose when buying?
First of all, determine the power. Power must strictly comply with the displacement. Hour power pumping water mechanical filter should be equal to the volume of the aquarium. In external filters, the volume of the container should be about 10% of the volume of the tank.
The choice of a specific type depends on what type of biotope is planned to be created in an aquarium and, of course, on the financial capacity of an amateur (internal filters are out of competition due to their low price). When creating a biotope with a focus on the rich flora or the Dutch aquarium, you need a powerful enough internal filter. If it is a biotope populated with fish, it is worthwhile to focus only on external mechanical filter (especially if it will be fish that are “not friendly” with the vast majority of plant species, cichlids, eg). For such a filter is recommended to buy filter sponges-biological filters or other substrates for biobacteria.
The main purpose of Fish Tank Filters is to make the water clean and suitable for the maintenance and development of animal organisms. At the first sign of the appearance of turbidity, it is worth considering whether the Fish Tank Filter works well enough.