Water in nature undergoes purification through natural filters. The closed environment of the aquarium requires a person to participate in this process. Over time, the water becomes unsuitable for life and requires replacement. The biofilter for the aquarium is designed to clean the environment for fish and remove ammonia. The latter is formed due to the decomposition of food residues, fish waste products and the activity of pathogenic bacteria.
The biofilter is needed to clean the water in the aquarium from ammonia
The principle of the biofilter
Special bacteria act as a biofilter. Their mission – to process ammonia into nitrates. Only with a filler, without useful microflora, filters for purifying aquarium water are useless. Mechanical elements can only hold up the dirt, but do not disinfect it.
There are 2 types of bacteria that are used for water purification:
- nitrifying – are engaged in the oxidation of ammonia to hydroxylamine, which is processed into nitrite and nitrate;
- nitrobacteria – they process nitrites into nitrates, which have a significantly less harmful effect on fish.
Beneficial bacteria are present by themselves in the aquarium, but in small quantities. They do not resemble a separate substance that can be collected and poured. The task of the owners is to provide a comfortable place for bacteria to breed. If there is adequate nutrition, then this happens quickly.
The ideal place for the maintenance of the vital activity of beneficial bacteria creates a biological filter for the aquarium. In the design of the device there is a special filler. It increases the contact surface with water, thanks to its porous structure. This gives a lot of space for beneficial microflora, which guarantees its active reproduction.
- foam rubber or synthetic winterizer – the most common options that also allow to get rid of dirt;
- bioceramics, gravel or pebbles – spray water, enriching it with air;
- plastic fillers – also increase the oxygen content in the water;
- cellular glass.
There are combined options from well-known manufacturers. There is no fundamental value when choosing, but systems on synthetic fabric are more quickly clogged with dirt and mucus. For stable operation, they require frequent cleaning. The listed materials create a comfortable environment for the stay of beneficial bacteria.
The stable operation of the biofiltration system is supported by a continuous supply of water for cleaning. Dirty liquid contains many nutrients for the bacteria that they recycle. Biofilter for aquarium with your own hands can be done at home. But first you need to understand the principle of the factory device.
For efficient filtration, the water supply must be continuous.
The volume of the aquarium affects the design of the bio-cleaning system. The greater the capacity, the more difficult the filtering device will be. Large systems contain additional compartments for multi-stage cleaning. As well as manufacturers equip such models with means to control the water supply and the quality of its filtration.
Components of a simple biofilter:
- tube – sprays water;
- compressor – supplies air to the nebulizer;
- filter element.
Components form a whole. Each part performs its part of the work and passes the result to the next.
Description of work:
- The filter housing is immersed in the aquarium.
- Ammonia-contaminated water enters the housing, where it is cleaned from coarse impurities with a conventional filter.
- Then comes the filler, where over time accumulates a sufficient number of bacteria. Their task is to neutralize ammonia.
- Safe water enters the sprayer where oxygen saturation occurs. Then she flows back to the aquarium.
A small aquarium holds a small amount of water. To clean it will need less bacteria. Consequently, the body of the biofilter can also be made small.
Components and tools:
- plastic bottle;
- nail, you can use the awl;
- foam rubber;
- filtering filler;
- gum round shape;
Complex components are missing, so you can proceed to installation immediately. It is unlikely that something will be absent in the household.
- An awl or nail is heated on an open fire so that they can melt the plastic. Next, make holes at the bottom of the bottle in several rows – usually 5.
- Two thirds fall asleep filler for biofiltration. Experts recommend the use of zeolite, suitable expanded clay or any other available material.
- The holes through which water will flow are closed with a sponge to evenly load the bacteria. So that the sponge does not break, it is fixed with an elastic band.
- Spray down into the bottle. Clean water after oxygenation rises through the filter and enters the aquarium.
The advantage of this version of the biofiltration system is a long service life. One filler load can work up to several months. Regular cleaning requires only a sponge.
The biofilter can be made by hand from improvised means.
Medium-sized aquariums require a more complex cleaning system, as the volume increases. To process 100 liters of water, more bacteria are needed, and additional dilution is required to dilute them. Still need a system for adjusting the flow of dirty liquid to improve the efficiency of the system.
Materials and components:
- silicone glue;
- foam and filler;
- glass cutter;
The body will be made of glass, you can use polycarbonate or transparent plastic. Components are glued to each other, which requires high precision manufacturing.
Medium and large aquariums require a more advanced cleaning system.
- Glass plates are prepared along the length of the walls and bottom of the aquarium. Before glue treatment, the joints of elements must be cleaned and degreased.
- In the body of the biofilter make several partitions by gluing the plates. Their height should be slightly below the walls.
- Foam rubber and filler are placed in the resulting compartments.
The system is put into the aquarium after a day. This time is necessary for reliable glue to set. It is advisable to check the finished system by immersing in water. The seams are checked for defects.
Decorative elements and living organisms look more attractive when the water is clean and does not threaten their lives. A quality, hand-made biofilter will help to create such conditions. Even when using a homemade device, aquarium lovers will have more free time. It will not be necessary to frequently change the water and clean the walls.