Dear readers, I welcome you on the pages of the site myaquaworld. ru. Today I propose to discuss the principles of filtration in an aquarium, as one of the components of ensuring internal well-being. Let’s start in order:
General description of the process.
The technical encyclopedia gives the following definition of this process: “By filtration called the leakage of fluid through the pores of a body. Its cause is the pressure difference in different parts of the path of the fluid. "
The same edition gives the definition and filters: “Filters – apparatus, mechanically separating a mixture of liquid and solid substances with the help of various kinds of porous bodies or partitions ".
With regard to the aquarium technique, this means that the passage of water through any filter material will lead to its cleaning and removal of suspended solids from it. For this process to occur, it is necessary to have a pressure difference of water, which is created using an additional device.
As is known, the content of living creatures in closed water systems over time leads to the accumulation of waste and the deterioration of living conditions.
Methods for cleaning aquarium water.
Three processes are used to clean the water in an aquarium:
one. Water change performed while cleaning the tank and will not be considered today. (You can read about cleaning the aquarium by clicking on the link).
2 Upholding is a natural process occurring in all systems, without exception, and consists in the sedimentation of particles of dirt, the specific weight of which is greater than the specific weight of water. Mechanical impurities sink to the bottom of the aquarium and can be removed when cleaning it with a siphon. The only condition is the absence of intensive mixing of water, which will lead to the ascent of particles. If there is water circulation in your aquarium, realized with the help of a circulator pump, filter or aerator, then some of these mechanical pollutants will constantly be suspended, which will worsen the transparency of the water and give the aquarium an untidy look. The output will be the installation of a filter to remove these contaminants. So we smoothly approached the third type of water purification process …
3. This type is called mechanical filtration. Modern aquarium technology of all countries agrees that its use greatly helps to facilitate the care of the aquarium, to bring it into a neat and well-groomed appearance. Therefore, when acquiring an aquarium, installing a filter that performs mechanical filtration is very desirable. It also creates the movement of water in your tank, which leads to additional raising of settled particles of pollution and their striving towards the filter, where they are detained by filtering material.
Principles of filters.
To bring water into motion, as well as to ensure its infiltration through the filtering material, devices are used to create a pressure difference. As a rule, these can be:
- compressor that creates a stream of compressed air;
- water pump.
Filters operating with a jet of compressed air are called airlift.
In such devices, water, passing through the filter element, is carried away upwards with the help of a large number of small air bubbles, rising through a special tube. Air is supplied to the aquarium using a compressor. This principle has been used in many filters at the dawn of the development of aquarium technology. A large number of designs and versions of these devices were invented. Fans invented and made their own hands from improvised means. Such a filter is literally made from a saucer and funnel in 5-10 minutes. You can also use a glass jar with a plastic lid. Of course, the aesthetic appearance of these devices in the aquarium does not hold water. But in the case of emergency measures, for example, when the main filter fails, it has a right to exist.
However, the rather low performance does not allow the use of these devices for aquariums with sizes above 50 liters. In addition, to drive water requires a powerful jet of air, which, going to the surface of the water, creates noise from bursting bubbles. In addition, the filter material must have a fairly low density, otherwise the air will not be able to create the necessary pressure difference to ensure the flow of water. Such filters require frequent maintenance and cleaning, because it is difficult to visually assess the performance of the filter – a decrease in the filtration rate does not affect the number and volume of air bubbles. To do this, you can output the output tube above the surface of the water, but this will further reduce performance. Also, to ensure the operation of this filter, you need an additional device – a compressor.
Remember that stopping the movement of water through the filter element for a long time will lead to rotting of the particles of the filtered pollutant, the death of a colony of bacteria and the subsequent release of toxic substances into the aquarium. Therefore, if the filter has been stopped for more than 30 minutes, you should clean the filter material before turning it on again.
Of the advantages it is worth noting the simplicity of the design, the ability to build it from improvised means, ease of maintenance, low cost. Also, during the operation of such a filter, there is an intensive mixing of the upper and lower layers of water, which leads to an improvement in the temperature regime of the aquarium, a more even supply of nutrients to the plants.
Currently, the use of airlift filters is limited to the area of quarantine and spawning aquariums.
Another way to ensure the movement of water through the filter – motor pumps.
This type of device is used in all modern filters. Pumps, having a low power consumption, can create water pressure such that airlift structures never dreamed of, the result of which is the possibility of carrying out effective filtration in large-volume aquariums. Also, sufficient power allows the use of more dense filter materials and combine them in various ways. All this has a very positive effect on the result and gives a wide field for experiments. On sale you can find devices designed for use in aquariums of any volume. Hermetic performance of these devices allows you to place them under water.
Probably the most popular are the internal and external filters equipped with motor pumps. You can read more about them in the relevant articles. In short, we can say that their name is determined by the type of installation. The external filter is located outside the aquarium, the internal one is installed under water. The simplest internal filter is obtained using a motor pump and a sponge that is put on the water intake pipe. The pump pumps water through a sponge, which delays mechanical impurities and suspensions.
The efficiency and quality of these devices, when properly installed, is very high. In addition, they are combined with a low noise level, which allows you to place an aquarium equipped with such devices in a bedroom or living room.
But if the internal filter performs mainly mechanical filtration, then the external filter can also carry out biological filtration. This is a process in which colonies of bacteria colonize the surfaces of a special filtering substrate and participate in the nitrogen cycle. They help to convert toxic substances such as ammonia, ammonia and nitrites into practically safe nitrates, which are fertilizer for plants.
So the external and internal filters can have compartments for the implementation of chemical filtration. They contain special substances that allow you to change the composition of water. This can be useful when you need to change the hardness of the water or its pH. Also, in the case of diseases of underwater inhabitants, various medicines can fit into these compartments. The use of sorbents, such as activated carbon, helps remove toxic substances from water.