Internal filters get their name because of their placement inside the aquarium. They usually occupy a fairly large space inside artificial reservoirs, while providing good filtration of water in a biological, chemical and mechanical form. These filters are a universal solution for aquarium beginner aquarists, due to ease of maintenance and relatively low cost compared to other filters. Aquarium internal filters have a simple design, in some cases they are additionally decorated for a deck or amphora, other options are possible. The filter provides a good level of cleaning the reservoir, but needs timely maintenance, thanks to which it will not overflow with dirt. During the operation of the filter, it should be taken into account that it performs biological filtration only with the help of aerobic bacteria settling on the filler; therefore, constant air feed is necessary for their life. When you turn off the filter in it stops the circulation of water and, as a consequence, the bacteria begin to die, poisoning the water. With the further inclusion of such a filter, aquarium water becomes clogged with waste products of anaerobic bacteria, which do not require oxygen for life, which leads to the death of fish.
Mechanical purification of water in the aquarium
The filter is capable of producing high-quality mechanical water purification due to its pumping through the filtering filler. The filler can be both natural and artificial. The filler is located in a special cassette or immediately in the body cavity, through which water is pumped. After passing through the filler, water is enriched with oxygen through the exit of the compressor nozzle into the filter system, then it is discharged through the outlet nozzle to the aquarium, usually at the water level. At the exit from the nozzle, a guide nozzle is installed, made in the form of an expanding cone and a small transverse bar in its middle, which is necessary to create water flow and its mixing in the lower and upper layers.
Chemical water purification in the aquarium
One of the most common components in the filler with the function of chemical cleaning is activated carbon. It is located in a cassette, fixed inside the filter, in a stream of water. Due to the porous structure of the material and the decrease in the rate of movement of the liquid by the filter filler, water is purified from the decomposition products of organic matter by the method of their absorption. The structure of the activated carbon filling the cartridge is constructed in such a way as to have a maximum material area through which water will pass. Cleaning is carried out using the ability of coal to absorb various impurities harmful to living organisms.
Other types of filler act in a similar way, but differ significantly in composition. The filter cassette materials can be from the same composition or combined, for example, coal and zeolite. Usually, complete with a filter, there is an instruction with the proposed cartridges, which provide a certain time of their work for chemical purification of water. It should be remembered that if the threshold of the permissible content of chemically absorbed substances is exceeded and when the filter cartridge is physically contaminated, it is possible to get the opposite effect from the expected result on the contamination of the aquarium and the poor health of the fish. Filter cartridges should be replaced regularly or well washed with warm water, if this is intended by the instruction. Do not wash the filter cassette with it, it will significantly reduce its ability to biofiltration.
Bio filtration of aquarium water
Biological filtration in the internal filter is carried out due to colonies of bacteria inhabiting their filter elements and occurs for some time required by bacteria for the destruction of complex organic structures and their processing. When launching the internal filter, it should be remembered that it will start working in the biological filtering mode only after a week from the start, which is achieved by growing a colony of bacteria. A full filter operation in this mode is possible only after a month of continuous operation of the device.
The filter should not be turned off, as it must constantly provide a stream of water saturated with oxygen through the filter element, for example, the sponge, which contains bacteria colonies. When turning off the light and, as a result, the filter for more than 30-60 minutes, rinse its contents thoroughly with warm water, then dry it. After that, it is necessary to re-start the filter, it will reach the working power of biological treatment within a month.
Internal filter efficiency
The internal filter cleans well water in aquariums up to 100 liters and more. You should choose a suitable power filter to the volume of water in the aquarium. The filter should pump a 3-fold volume of aquarium water through itself for an hour, only under this condition the water in the artificial reservoir will retain its purity. Internal filters of the latest models do not produce too intense noise. The noise level of these devices is different due to the use of a pump or pump to supply water to the cleaning element. Usually, it is almost invisible when operating the device and does not cause discomfort.
An internal filter is an acceptable solution for a beginner aquarist. It does not require special attention and constant monitoring, it works automatically. Some models of filters are equipped with a compressor, an air intake or a water heater, which makes these devices universal aquarium equipment. Universal aquarium equipment, combining many functions, is suitable for small artificial reservoirs, and thanks to the decorative design of the case will not attract excessive attention.
Internal filter design
The design of the internal filter is not particularly complex and consists of a sequential combination of parts: a housing, a water intake tube with a conical nozzle or a mesh opening at the bottom of the filter, a water filling compartment above which there is a rigid mesh partition (mesh) through which water flows to a mechanical filter ( washcloth, foam rubber, sponge, etc.), then comes a biological filter (ceramic filler), behind which is a cartridge or chemical cleaning cartridge with a filler of activated carbon. The water through it is sucked in by the pump and enters the outgoing hole, on which the guide nozzle for the water jet is fixed.