Canister Filter Do It Yourself

The question of choosing a filter for an aquarium is always quite acute. Especially if it is a small aquarium – 10 liters so … Even special miniature filters take up quite a lot of space in it and spoil the picture of the underwater world with their alienness.
Of course, there is nothing terrible in it if the aquarium is used as temporary – spawning, nursery, quarantine … But if we decide to make a nano aquarium-aquascape, then the problem gets out in all its glory.

Output – use external (external filter). But…

First of all, external filters are not cheap.
And secondly, they are designed for large aquariums and such a flow of water, which is created by such a filter, simply blurs our entire scape. Storm in the glass …

One thing remains – to make a little do-it-yourself external filter .
I have such a thing already successfully working and in this material I am sharing with you a method of making this device.

We will need a food container with a hermetically sealed lid, a hose, cable glands (glands), a submersible pump, and a filter element (sponge).

You should start by choosing a pump.
Attention should be paid to such characteristics as the height to which the pump raises the water. At the same time, remember that the manufacturer indicates maximum height of the water column . Those. even if the upper end of the hose is open, the water will not rise above!
Those. if you plan to install the filter, for example, 30 cm below the top of the aquarium, then you need to choose a pump that can raise water at least 50 cm. Otherwise, it will not be able to drive water.

The choice of the pump determines the choice of the container (filter housing) – it should fit in it – and the hoses. To be precise, then – the output hose, but I think it makes sense to put the same on the input and output. You need to choose a hose that is suitable in diameter to the pump outlet.

In turn, the diameter of the hose determines the choice of cable entries.
However, in any case, these entries must have a degree of protection IP68. Then leakage can not be afraid.

Actually, the choice of "parts" – the most difficult.

In my case (aquarium 10 liters , the filter stands next to it on the shelf) came the Chinese HAILEA HX-800 pump with a capacity of 3 W with a height of water rise of 50 cm and an output tube diameter of 9 mm.

The hose, respectively, was bought 9/12 mm (1 meter was enough for me). Cable glands come up with PG-13.5 (2 pieces for inlet and outlet hoses) and PG-7 (1 piece for outputting the pump wire).

After everything has been bought, we make three holes in the container (after having placed the pump in it and having figured out where it is better to arrange the entrance and exit) and fix the glands in them. Too much threading is not necessary, otherwise the sealing gasket will fail and it will flow.

The next step is barbaric cutting the pump wire in half. The fact is that the plug in the gland does not crawl, even burst.
We install the pump into the container, push the wire out and fix it in the gland, and insert the switch into the cut of the wire (which should be outside!). Well, or do the usual skruttku.

We insert and fix the input and output tubes in the glands (the output, of course, we put on the pump output).

Here, in fact, our ready homemade external filter . It remains to fill it with water and check the tightness.
After testing, cut to size and put in a container filter element , pour water into it, close the lid and attach free ends of the inlet and outlet hoses in the aquarium with suckers.

Such a minimalistic external filter quite successfully copes with its responsibilities in nano aquarium .
If desired, the design can be improved by adding its neck to fill with water, flute at the exit, special fillers for filters, etc.

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Each aquarium should have a filtration system that will purify the water, ensuring the health of the fish and plants. As it is known, wastes that are left behind by the inhabitants of the reservoir, as well as the remnants of food, suspended particles of soil are very harmful for fish. Not eaten feed is oxidized, turning into toxic ammonia. In order for the water to pass through all the steps of cleaning in a timely manner, it is better to make an external filter for the aquarium with your own hands. It will prevent the appearance of harmful substances that can poison living beings.

Quick transition on the article

How to design an external filter?

Before you make an Fish Tank Filter with your own hands, you should understand how the filtration system works. The biological filtration method in an aquarium is the process by which ammonium is converted to nitrites, then to nitrates. Biofilation is carried out thanks to beneficial microorganisms that live in the aquatic environment. This process depends on the amount of oxygen absorbed, so it is important to maintain a constant supply of aeration in the tank using a filter and a compressor.

See how the homemade external filter made of plastic bottles works.

To make an external biological filter with your own hands, you should prepare the following materials:

  • Plastic bottle of mineral water 0.5 l;
  • A plastic tube with a neck diameter of this bottle;
  • Sintepon;
  • Compressor and hose to it;
  • Aquarium pebbles with a diameter of up to 5 mm.

A plastic bottle should be divided into 2 parts so that fragments of different sizes are obtained from it. It should make a cup with a neck and a big bottom. The bowl should be directed with the side of the neck up and firmly planted in the bottom. In the outer circle of the bowl you need to make several openings through which water can flow into the filter. The recommended diameter of the openings is 3-4 mm, their arrangement is in 2 rows, with 4-6 holes in each.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Next, the tube should be inserted into the neck of the bowl so that it entered into it tightly. After the procedure, you should not notice any gaps or holes between the tube and the neck. The length of the tube itself is chosen taking into account the projection above the structure by 2-3 cm. At the same time, it should not touch the bottom of the bottle. If the step is done incorrectly, water will not be able to flow into the mechanism.

Take the gravel and put it on top of the bowl with a layer of 6 cm, and cover it with a piece of padding polyester. Install a hose in the tube from the aerator, and fix it. When the mechanism is ready, it must be placed in the aquarium. Then you should turn on the compressor in order for the filter to start its work. In the existing equipment, beneficial microorganisms will appear that process ammonia into nitrates, which forms a useful microbiological environment in water.

How does a hand-made external filter work?

The self-made external filter is constructed on the basis of aerolifting: air bubbles that come from the compressor, rise to the tube, from which they come to the top, and lower with them the water flow from the filter. Clean and oxygenated water enters the upper compartment of the glass, and passes through the gravel. Then the water enters the bowl through the hole, goes down the tube, and enters the tank. Synthon here functions as a mechanical filter. This material prevents the silting of the gravel substrate.

Chemically and mechanically purifies water. It is better to install such structures in a large aquarium with a volume of 200-400 liters. For more spacious aquariums with a capacity of 500-1000 liters will need several such devices. Branded external water treatment systems are expensive, so it’s best to do it yourself. Materials are inexpensive and accessible to everyone.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Another way to make an external filter

For the following external filter you need to prepare the following details:

  • Plastic container with a tight lid (you can take a box for storing cereals);
  • Sponge or thick material of porous structure;
  • The tight water pump and the union for fastening to a capacity cover;
  • Material for biological filtration (medical cotton, ceramic granules);
  • Several suckers, resin adhesive texture.

See how to make an external filter with your own hands.

Instructions for making the filter:

  1. It is necessary to take a thin file, and make cuts along the entire perimeter of the lower compartment of the plastic container. The cuts will pass the water.
  2. Put a sponge in this plastic container, on it – cotton wool or another element for biofiltration.
  3. On the cover of the tank, make holes that will correspond to the diameter of the pump nozzle.
  4. Insert the fitting into the hole made, and secure it with resin or aquarium silicone.
  5. At the nozzle should screw the pump, which can create pressure inside the container.
  6. On the side of the container, which is wider, you should attach a few household suction cups.
  7. The internal filtration system can be considered finished. Suckers can hold the device on the wall of the aquarium.

Such a homemade filter can be mounted not on the wall, but put it on the bottom of the tank. The soil will also play the role of a biological filter. A plastic nozzle can be attached to the exit hole of a plastic in the form of a long tube that goes outside. Then after cleaning, the water will be saturated with oxygen.

Read more:  Aquarium Internal Filter Rules For The Selection, Installation And Operation

Instead of a small plastic container, you can use a plastic canister or a canister of stainless, non-toxic metal. This design is suitable for large aquariums, you can put in it large cassettes and cartridges with filtering elements. You need to maintain homemade filters with the same frequency as the branded ones.

If the filter is leaking, check all its elements:

  • Whether clips of the mechanism are densely closed. You may have inattentively secured the parts with glue or resin. You can solve the problem by securing the clips again.
  • A sponge or suction cup may become dirty in the running filter. Mucus and debris can be cleaned with water. Check the cleanliness of the design every month.
  • Damage to the plastic container, which will have to change, tinkering with the filter itself.

Some aquarists believe that it is not worth saving on the fish and the food for them, but you can find a replacement for expensive equipment for the aquarium. Some accessories and accessories, including a water purifier, are quite capable of making with your own hands. Of course, for this you need to know the basic principles of filtration of water, as well as to have some skills home craftsman.

How to make an internal filter?

What is necessary?

So, for work will be required:

  • plastic container with a tight lid (suitable container for storing bulk products);
  • thick porous material or sponge;
  • hermetic water pump with a fitting for attachment to the lid of the container;
  • ceramic granules or rings for biological filtration (for fine cleaning, simple cotton wool can be used as a filtering element);
  • 2-3 suction cups, adhesive resin.

Operating procedure

Basically, the internal filter is ready. The suction cups will securely hold the self-made device on the wall of the container.

Such a filter can also be put directly on the ground. The latter will serve as an additional level of filtering.

If you attach a plastic nozzle with a long tube that goes outside to the pump outlet, then at the same time as water purification it will occur

External Fish Tank Filter do it yourself

What can you do?

Making such a device at home will take more time.

  • As the case you can use a round high plastic canister.
  • If there is none, then a section of a large-diameter plastic garden tube will do. True, the upper and lower covers will have to cut and mount yourself.

Working process

First stage

  • In the lower part of the canister a hole is cut into which a metal or plastic fitting with a one-way inlet valve is screwed tightly.
  • There are 2 holes in the cover: for fixing the water outlet valve and the electropump.
  • The pump itself through the fitting is attached to the inside of the cover.

Now you need to make cassettes, or cartridges, with filter elements. They can be made from plastic flower pots, smoothly cutting off the top wide part.

The diameter of such self-made cassettes should be slightly less than the internal diameter of the canister.

At the bottom of each cassette burned holes for the passage of water.

The first cartridge, where the sponge is placed, is inserted into the canister so that its bottom is slightly above the adapter with the inlet valve.

A second cartridge is installed, where the filtering material can be fiber, synthetic winterizer or cotton wool. A filter cartridge with biomaterial is mounted on top so that it is below the pump canister attached to the lid.

If the body of the external filter is made by itself, then its bottom and lid are sealed with silicone or resin.

Tubes or hoses are connected to the inlet and outlet adapters with valves. Their length is adjustable depending on the depth of the aquarium and the distance to the filter.

External aquarium water purifier ready.

As in the first case, the working pump creates pressure, under the influence of which the water is first sucked into the canister, passes all filtration stages and then flows back into the aquarium.

Before using it is necessary to check the canister for 24 hours for tightness by filling it with water.

The main element of the cleaner is the pump. When choosing it, you should consider the volume of the aquarium. For example: for a 70-liter aquarium, a pump with a capacity of 300 liters per hour is suitable, and for a 200-liter one – 1000 liters per hour.

Instead of conclusion

At home, you can make and or, as it is called, false. However, this is a more difficult task, which can be done by real craftsmen.

Quite a large number of owners of aquariums prefer not to spend money on expensive equipment. Aquafilters, diligently made with their own hands, work no worse than expensive branded devices. And the technology and the frequency of their service is the same as in the sold models. In addition, a self-made device has a slightly different moral value. Is not it?

Video on how to properly make an external Fish Tank Filter:

Being a lover of aquarium with a small experience, I came to the conclusion that the internal filter in my aquarium does not cope with its task. And from the frequent maintenance of the filter, only the inhabitants of my aquarium suffered.

After examining the information on the filters, I came to the conclusion that the unambiguous correct solution is to use an external filter. Biofiltration is extremely effective, and none of the methods of water purification can even partially replace it.

The composition of water purified by an external filter is approximately similar to water in slow-flowing natural water bodies. With a weekly refreshment of one third of the volume of the main aquarium, it can be assumed that the ichthyofauna and hydroflora are contained practically in flowing natural water – hence all the successes achieved in systems with biofiltration.

The news was not pleasant for me that the cost of the external filter turned out to be comparable with the cost of the aquarium itself.

After reviewing the design of externalists, I decided to make with my own hands an analogue of the external filter Eheim.

For the manufacture of homemade external filter were purchased:

Pump (fountain pump), Chinese-made RESUN, 30 W., 2000 l / h, water column lifting 2 m.
– PVC coupling for sewer pipe d = 200 mm. + 2 plugs to it,
– cranes, corners, sgony, etc.
– PVC pipe d = 20 mm. for receiving and supplying water to the aquarium 4 m.

– filter media.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

For inserts in the plugs used fittings of the following design.

My choice on this pump was stopped due to the rise of the water column of 2 m. Since, the outsider will stand on the floor.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Drilled holes in the upper and lower cap for the supply and pumping of water. When installing fittings, I used rubber gaskets with an additional use of silicone-ion sealant.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

I tried to insert the plugs into the clutch with sealing rubber bands and I did not succeed, it worked out too tightly. Understanding that if I succeed in inserting a stub, I will not pull it out from there. Proceeding from this, I cut the edges of the coupling in order to disassemble the filter, if anything, then it was possible to remove the gum and thereby depressurize the filter. At the bottom of the coupling made the seat under the inlet fitting.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

A cut of the coupling edge will later be installed inside the coupling and will hold the grid.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

In the lower cap installed grid above the level of the nozzle. For this we had to pull a box for vegetables.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

After that, with a clear conscience, we can install the bottom cap in the coupling. Since the sealing gum will not be used here, it is necessary to coat the entire area of ​​the plug with silicone. And after installing the plug, we additionally coat the joints inside and outside with sealant.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

In the lid additionally drilled a hole for the mains wire and air release. It was not necessary to fasten the pump to the plug, and even without this it is reliably fixed by the length of the hose and the mains wire.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

For sealing the network wire used a fitting similar to that used in street lamps. In place of the wire break set the switch.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Under the inlet pipe set bracket for mounting the bulb of the household filter, which will serve as a preliminary filter for coarse cleaning. It would have been possible to do without it, but then I would have to install a sponge on the inlet pipe directly in the aquarium, or wash the canister every month (in my plans, washing the canister will take place at least once every 6 months).

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

For the manufacture of pre. filter needed PVC sewer pipe d = 32 mm. In which many holes were drilled. It would be possible to use, in addition, in before. filter activated carbon or zeolite, but first decided to do a foam sponge.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

When all the details of the filter assembly proceed to filling with fillers.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

1 layer. At the bottom in the first place we settle the material for coarse filtration. For these purposes, the most suitable foam with a large cell. But unfortunately I did not manage to find sheet foam rubber for aquariums of a suitable size. And instead he used something like a ball of fishing line.

2 layer. Fill with ceramic rings. The purpose of their application in the filter is to branch out the flow of water and to evenly distribute its current over the entire transverse area of ​​the filtering material.

3 layer. We put a layer of foam rubber with a small cell. In my case the synthetic winterizer was used.

4 layer. Fill with "bio balls" substrate for colonies of nitrifying bacteria. In this section all the mysteries of the nitrogen cycle take place. Here heterotrophs, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers peacefully coexist, regularly performing the duties assigned to them; the working volume of the chamber should be 4/5 of the biofilter body capacity. As a substrate for bacteria, claydite (preferably crushed) can be used because it has a porous structure.

Read more:  External Filter For Aquarium

5 layer. It is not necessary, but I decided to add the substrate FLUVAL. Externally, it looks like ceramic rings, only the material has a porous structure. If you take a ring into your hand, ring, plug a hole on one side with your finger, and blow it into the other on the other, then all the air will escape through the micropores.

6 layer. The final layer, directly in front of the exit intake hole (i.e. before the filter pump, one should place the synthetic winterizer. It will protect the rotor from dirt particles entering it.

Homemade external filter for the aquarium is ready, the assembly was successful. Testing showed a very good pump performance, although the pump performance was 2 times less. The top cover is not fully installed, due to the strong tight fixation of the sealing gum. If you close the lid to the end, it is possible that the filter will no longer open.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Filter maintenance is reduced to cleaning the pre-filter as it gets dirty. Opening and washing the cans in half a year. I want to note that it is necessary to wash in the filter only ceramics and foam rubber and always aquarium water. The extract is washed only as needed.

The first time after launching a homemade external filter actually works only as a mechanical one. Beneficial bacteria have not yet colonized the substrate. Dirt fills the filter, which causes a decrease in its performance. The water pressure gradually decreases. But there is a reverse process. Dirt is food for bacteria. They break down the organic matter that accumulates here and is processed into nitrate, i.e. begins biological self-cleaning filter.

Full colonization of the substrate by colonies of beneficial bacteria occurs within 2-4 weeks. And then it all depends on what process will take up – pollution or self-cleaning. If the first, the filter will continue to be contaminated. Not as intense as the first two weeks, but inevitable. When the filter performance drops below 30% of the maximum, it needs to be cleaned and restarted, otherwise a so-called can occur. "tipping" – a violation of biological processes, as a result of which poisonous substances are produced and thrown into the aquarium.

If self-cleaning gains the upper hand, the filter on the contrary is gradually freed from dirt and the performance that falls to 50-70% of the maximum is restored. Theoretically, after that the filter should work forever. In practice, productivity is not fully restored, and inside the canister, from time to time, stagnant zones are formed. Therefore, I recommend cleaning it from time to time, even if the water pressure is strong.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

In addition, I want to note that all metal parts should be free from lubrication. Because a drop of oil can spoil a ton of water and thereby destroy all of your inhabitants. Therefore, it is desirable to use plastic parts (fittings, angles, taps), which in turn are much cheaper than metal parts.

P.S. Later, I replaced the hoses with corrugated ones (which are used to drain the washing machine), since PVC hoses easily crumpled and thus blocked the access of water.

The lid will need to be pulled off with pins, otherwise, if the light is turned off, it may be torn out.

Metal taps and fittings replaced by plastic which are used for irrigation.

I will begin with a short preface. Although I have a long time aquarium 140 liters, but I consider myself only an amateur. Since he kept the fish purely for the soul (it is necessary to do something). In the winter, I had time to look after my pets, and in the summer it wasn’t up to them, it happened, I’m going to launch so that I had to catch skeletons. And sitting next winter evening, I looked at my aquarium and decided it was necessary, something to do so will continue, can not more. I wanted all the time to achieve clean stormy vegetation, but it worked only partially. Even when replacing the internal filter Atman f-102 I purchased, more powerful Atman f-104 .

The results of those that I wanted, did not work. So I decided or thought visited me, I don’t remember, but I went to the Internet and began to look for how to achieve a normal state and found that in addition to internal filters there are external filters. In short, having familiarized myself with them, I came to the conclusion that this is what I need, but here prices have bitten a bit (Kiev Internet prices 800-1400 grams. The cheapest Chinese Atman CF-800 —- 600gr.).

After a very long deliberation, I came to the final conclusion that it was necessary to make homemade products. Why I decided so, firstly, the availability of spare parts covered the tap went, bought, or even the motor from the internal filter, we have them in stock, went to buy a filter, put the motor from it and no problems. And so to go to Kherson is there something or not, and this all the time, the fish will not wait. But since we simply don’t deliver 200 pipes, we don’t use it, only 160 and 100 were in demand. When I came home, I was even a little upset, but measuring the pump from an Atman f-104 filter (according to its characteristics, it was Description: Power – 38 W Capacity – 2000 l / h Water rise – 2 m) I was convinced that everything should stand only very much in the butt. Since there were no 350mm couplings so long, I took a meter-long piece of a 160mm pipe and plug. I decided to connect all with plastic compounds. Compiled a list of what is needed, and after buying all the necessary things, he set to work.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Once again, having familiarized myself with the internal filters, I took the filter as a basis. Eheim Classic 2213

Specifications: For aquarium: up to 250 l
Productivity: 440 l / h
Water lifting height: 1.5 m
Filter capacity: 3 liters.
Dimensions: 160 x 160 x 355 mm.
Power consumption: 8 watts.
The height of the pump Atman f-104 was 10 cm, I added it, and it turned out 160x160x450mm. I began to think about how to make the bottom, first cut from a thick plastic circle on silicone and self-tapping at the ends, but then it dawned on me, but what if you heat the pipe and insert the cap. I took a cut off piece from the main one and went to experiment. On the gas stove (the biggest burner), I began to scroll over the flame (I had to wear mittens, my fingers were hot) the pipe softened over time, it became such an elastic rubber, and I managed to insert a plug. Realizing that everything will turn out very well, I did the same thing with the main workpiece (if anyone wants to make something like that, you shouldn’t lower it to the flame so as not to hurt the plastic, you need to scroll the pipe evenly and, trying it out for elasticity, you don’t need 50cm so that will be trained on what)

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

So the bottom I have done, I decided to do the upper part, everything worked out, even better than I could imagine, the nose from the pump came right up to the 20 corner, it remains only to lubricate the plastic with aquarium silicone and everything is okay. The engine had a ledge at the back, I decided to make a retaining bar so that the engine hung not only on the nose, but also rested against the bar (everything also missed with silicone). if I pulled it out, then I cut a 24 mm wide section from the experimental tube on the stub, which would serve as a stop.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

When installing the Mayevsky crane, I decided to drill a hole so that Mayevsky, when screwing, cut the thread a little bit with a napfilk and everything turned out (also planted on silicone) I bought a fitting for the wire on the market (they are, different diameters are used for street lamps or electric motors)

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Since I was not satisfied with the loading of filtering elements, both in the German filter and in the self-made filter published on this site, I decided to make the loading baskets as in filters Eheim Professionel 2224 and so on.

Not finding the right packaging, I decided to make a basket from the remaining pipe. I made three pieces of 8 cm each. You can do two with ceramic rings and biological balls and fill up the rest with a sponge if you find a diameter of 160×160 (having cut off 8 cm I cut this piece along then put it in the pipe and delineating how much to cut, so so that the gap was not large, so that the basket went without effort) at first I glued the glue to the plastic, and for making durable holes, twisted it with copper wire, I drowned it in the grooves made with the wood burner. Cutting the bottom and drilling the holes could be put on the aquarium silicone, but I decided to play it safe (I didn’t want the bottom to come off when pulling out and the entire filling spilled out)

I cut a strip of 3 mm and pasted it. She put her on silicone and twisted the wire from four sides, also made grooves and drowned. After that, planted the bottom of the silicone. Handle also made of pipe. You can use bolts with tacking, but I took a rod from a plastic dowel (with the help of foam attached to the wall) cut into 2 cm barrels and with the help of a bolt heated on the stove, it burned down with a hat.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Yes, with a tati when the pipe is cool, I gently tapped the plug from the pipe. In the plug, I inserted two plates in order for the baskets to be installed against it. I drowned them flush with the edge. When installing the plug is coated with aquarium silicone and planted until it stops.

Read more:  Step-By-Step Launch Of The Aquarium

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

By the way, if you use a household filter, then try to take a crane with Mayevsky from the top, and not from the side as I have for a better air outlet, I had to drill a small hole and tighten the screw with an eraser, in the photo I showed the arrow. I screwed the flask onto the special clamp on the photo; this device can be seen in the photo, four bolts with sheep were attached to it, which pressed the top cover from opening. Thanks to this, I can separately open the lid without touching the flask from the household filter.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

For sucking water into the filter, I used a plastic bottle of 0.5 liters from the drink, cut off the neck and already finished plastic plate with holes (drilled small holes so that the fish did not suck in) screwed with a wire. If now I need to clean, then you can easily unscrew this flask. I filled the filter like this: the first basket of claydite cut into half with plastic rings cut from plastic corrugations for electrical wiring (by the way, they resemble branded filler)

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

a second basket with a porous sponge for bacteria, a third fine-porous sponge and a pad of synthetic winterizer.

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Beginners aquarium enthusiasts usually acquire small aquariums and very soon make sure that fry do not grow well in such aquariums, adult fish feel uncomfortable and even the plants have low water height. We have to replace such aquariums with other, large ones. But in large aquariums, the population is gradually expanding, and more and more often there is a need to clean the aquarium from accumulating dirt.

Usually, to maintain cleanliness in the aquarium, various mud tappers are used, systematically removing dirt from the ground (bottom) with a hose, using special filters. By the way, using a filter, you can purify water from dirt particles (dregs), while simultaneously saturating the water with oxygen from the air necessary for breathing to fish and other aquatic animals.

If necessary, activated carbon is absorbed into the filters, absorbing harmful substances dissolved in water, peat for water acidification, drugs that have a beneficial effect on the inhabitants of the aquarium.

Filter designs.

Structurally, the filters are divided into external and internal. External filters are more often used for large-capacity aquariums. They work with an electric pump that drives water from the aquarium through the filter material in the filter housing. These filters are relatively large in size, complex and are installed near the aquarium or hung on its wall.

The design of the internal filters is simple, such filters are usually small in size and performance. They work with the help of a microcompressor supplying air to the tube. The bubbles of air that pop up in the tube carry the water along with it, raising it above the water level in the aquarium. The generated water flow passes through the filtering material and is cleaned of dirt. Such filters in accordance with the principle of operation are called air-lift.

The capacity of the filters, that is, the volume of water that passes through the filter for a specific period of time, depends on the volume of air supplied by the compressor and the size of the filter. Internal filters are installed on the bottom (ground), the wall and under the ground of the aquarium. During feeding, it is desirable to stop the flow of air so that the feed does not get into the filter and does not start to rot. The filter should be regularly cleaned of dirt, so that no harmful bacteria are divorced.

As filtering materials, small and large quartz river is used: sand (washed and boiled), synthetic threads and fabric (nylon, nylon, etc.). Waterproofing foam is also used as a filtering material, in large pores of which dirt accumulates. We offer fans a few options for very simple, but fairly effective internal air-lift filters, suitable for water purification in aquariums with a capacity of up to 100 liters. Which can be made "in haste" of scrap materials.

Bottom filter housing (Fig. 1) serves as a box with a tight-fitting lid. The box can be found ready (from plastic), you can use a cut plastic bottle or glue it out of organic glass with a thickness of 1.5-2 mm.

Fig. 1 Bottom filter with plastic box housing.

To monitor the content of dirt in the filter in order to timely clean the filter material from it, it is desirable that the housing or filter cover is made of a transparent material. A plastic tube with a diameter of 15–20 mm, a length of 150–200 mm is glued in or tightly inserted into the housing cover.

Air spray ceramic-purchase. A row of holes of such diameter are drilled in the side wall of the casing so that through them the fry or snails cannot get inside the filter. It is recommended to fill the filter housing with a filtering material not very tight. Note that the efficiency of the filter largely depends on the operation of the sprayer.

After all, the smaller the size of the air bubbles, the greater their total surface in contact with water, that is, water is better saturated with oxygen and increases the flow of water through the filter material.

Another simple internal filter is shown on rice 2 The filter housing is a standard glass jar with a capacity of 0.4-1 liters. The case is closed with a conventional polyethylene cap, in which the holes for aquarium water supply and the hole for the installation of the tube are drilled. A partition is usually made of the same lid (filter material is placed between the partition lid).

Fig. 2 Bottom filter with glass jar housing.

The filter spent on rice 3 The filter housing is a ceramic bowl, where an ordinary funnel is placed on the filter material. So that the funnel does not sink into the filtering material, the liners are installed under its edges. The filter consists of two layers: kapron threads and quartz sand with sand grains of medium size 1.5 – 2 mm.

Fig. 3 Simple bottom filter.

For a medium-sized aquarium (100-200 l) an air-lift filter is suitable. (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4 Hinged filter with insert cassette: 1 – overflow tube for lifting water; 2- tube for lifting water; 3- air tube.

A filter of this type can be hung on the side wall, inside or outside of the aquarium, but so that the water levels in the aquarium and the filter match. The filter consists of a housing with an insert cassette in which the filter material is placed.

To clean the filter material, the cassette is removed, and the filter housing remains in place, which is very convenient. The manufacture of such a filter start with the body (Fig. 5) , and then under its dimensions collect the tape (Fig. 6).

Canister Filter Do It Yourself

Fig. 5 Scheme of water movement in the hinged filter: A, B, C – compartments through which the treated water passes successively.

The gaps between the case and the cassette should be minimal so that the current of the water passes through the cassette, and does not leak through the gaps. The body and the cassette are made of transparent Plexiglas 2–3 mm thick. They glue the parts with chloroform glue with chips or plexiglas chips dissolved in it, as well as with BF -2, Mars glue. It is undesirable to use dichloroethane – it is very poisonous.

Fig. 6 Device plug-in cartridge filter.

Fig. 7 Mounted filter mounted on the wall of the aquarium.

Tubes (overflow 1 and for lifting water 2) can be either glass or plastic. At the lower end of the overflow pipe located in the aquarium, the cone with the net is strengthened (the cone will fit from a small watering can) so that the inhabitants of the aquarium would not get into the water filter (see Fig. 4). In tube 2, the lower end should be in the form of a funnel into which air enters through the atomizer.

The diameter of the hole of the tube 3 for the supply of air -3—4 mm. By means of a piece of rubber tube in red (black rubber is poisonous!), An air diffuser is attached. The compartment B of the filter housing is covered with a Plexiglas plate with holes for fastening the tubes 2 and 3 (on rice four not shown). The upper layer of filter material for the initial purification of water from large particles of dirt (made from nylon or nylon thread, scraps of fabric, old stockings).

To purify water from turbidity, a layer of washed and boiled quartz river sand with a grain size of 1–2 mm is placed in the bottom of the cassette. To activate the filter, the U-shaped tube 1 is filled with water, the holes are closed with fingers and the tube is installed at one end into the aquarium and the other into the filter housing.

As a result, the water from the aquarium will begin to fill the filter, and after a while, both in the aquarium and in the filter the water will settle at the same level. In order for the filter to start working, air must be supplied through tube 3. Water that flows from the aquarium into the filter first goes to compartment A, then through the partition into the cassette (compartment B), where it passes through the filter materials, is cleaned and passes under the partition into compartment B .

From here, the elift water rises through tube 2 and, purified and saturated with oxygen, is poured into the aquarium. Filter media should be washed systematically with warm water.

In fig. 7 shows a mounted filter mounted on the wall of the aquarium.