Types of devices and the basics of his work
Filters can be divided into 3 groups:
Bottom filters are installed inside the ground or directly on it to create water movement in the ground. Servicing them requires certain skills. The internal filter in the aquarium is attached to its rear wall from the inside. Such hanging equipment is usually used for small containers, and it is smaller than the external ones. Such a mounted filter is also suitable for a small aquarium of 100 to 200 liters in volume.
External filters are more convenient, as the tank filled with filtering material is outside the aquarium. They do not spoil the type of aquarium, and the filler is easy to rinse and replace. There are various modifications of this device for outdoor installation. The irrigated filter (cyclic), as well as the droplet outside filter, is characterized by irrigation of the substrate, which is constantly in contact with air and water from the aquarium, which guarantees the creation of an optimal bacterial culture.
See how the bottle filter works.
Such modifications, having a large irrigation area, are of enormous size and are not commercially available. Making an external filter with your own hands makes sense when the volume of water in the aquarium is large or even very large. When water passes through several substrates during purification, the devices also work as biofilters. Bacteria that live in a layer of thinner filler, affect the polluting substances of water, turning them into less harmful.
You can not make any mechanism, not understanding how it works. Because of this, before you make a filter for an aquarium, you need to find out what is the scheme of its action. Water is pumped through a tube through a tube into a device in which a multilayer filter element is located. The better it is, the more efficient the home-made external filter works. Then purified water through the second tube is fed from the unit into the aquarium.
One homemade external filter is installed for an aquarium in a capacity of two hundred liters to 500. Larger aquariums need to install 2 devices or more, since such an amount of water is too large for one external filter and the desired result will not be achieved.
The aerial filter for the aquarium is assembled by combining the outside with an aeration column. Ideally, a combination of mechanical and chemical cleansing. It is in this case that the quality of water in the home water reservoir remains at the highest level. Maximum filtering is especially important if tender, whimsical fish are kept. Knowing how to make the unit yourself, it will turn out to provide pets with optimal conditions.
Materials for production
The home master must know how to make an external filter for the aquarium with his own hands, and from what to make such a homemade product. Filter materials are needed high-quality, but it is not necessary to buy something expensive. In order to make the device will require:
- food plastic canister (sewer pipes are rarely used) – for the case, the round one will be optimal;
- hoses – rarely flexible pipes;
- plastic flower pots;
- fitting with one-way valve – 2 pieces;
- electric pump – the capacity for an aquarium of 200 liters requires 1000l / 1h;
- synthetic winterizer;
- foam rubber;
- ceramic filler;
- coal – used activated carbon for the aquarium.
The material for filling the filter elements can be replaced by another suitable means. So, the synthetic winterizer can be replaced with cotton, but the result will be somewhat lower. Instead of sponge suitable natural coconut fiber. If it is difficult to find the source materials, or there are doubts that it will work out to assemble the filter on your own, it is better to give up the idea and purchase a ready device.
Materials selected for the manufacture of the filter must be of high quality and do not emit toxic substances. If you have available tools, for example, some materials for plumbing, you can use them. It should be remembered that the characteristics of not all plumbing pipes are suitable for an aquarium. It is not necessary to take a new material, because during operation it could accumulate a substance hazardous to aquatic creatures.
The assembly of the apparatus is carried out in several stages. Performing them in the correct sequence helps to avoid simple mistakes that ultimately lead to improper filter operation or leakage. The work is carried out carefully, qualitatively sealing all seams and joints. If the outdoor unit starts to flow, not only the neighbors from the bottom will suffer, but also the fish, because the water will leave the aquarium. As a result, the leaked cleaner is able to empty the reservoir.
First, at the bottom of the canister a hole is made into which the fitting is inserted. Then, 2 holes are cut in the lid of the tank: one made for a valve to release water, and the second for an electric pump. The pump is attached to the inside of the cover using a fitting. All joints are sealed with aquarium silicone. It is important that there are no impurities in it.
Filter cartridges are made from plastic flower pots. The containers are shortened by half and made several holes in their bottom so that the water can pass through them. The diameter of the cassettes should be slightly smaller than the inside of the canister. A sponge is put in the lower cartridge, and it is mounted so that its bottom is just above the inlet valve. Next cassette with padding. The third cassette is filled with charcoal or ceramic filter media.
The last stage of homemade equipment is fixing the hoses to the inlet and exhaust valves. Their length should be measured a few times, so that they fit perfectly. Excessive length slows down filtration due to bends, and insufficient will not allow the equipment to be installed properly in the domestic water reservoir. The tubes should be fixed tightly and not hung out. To avoid leaks, they are fixed with a layer of sealant. Dries insulating material during the day. Prior to this, it is impossible to try the device, as a non-frozen sealant may recede, which is why gaps are formed, through which water will begin to ooze.
The last step in creating an outdoor cleaner is its leak test. To control the canister, which forms the basis of the unit, fill with settled water (to prevent further ingress of chlorine into the aquarium) and leave for a day. If there are no leaks, then install the equipment and start the device.
Videos with interesting ideas for a homemade external filter.