Types of filters for water purification in the aquarium and how to install the filter yourself
How to install a filter in a home aquarium
When purchasing a home aquarium, you need to take care not only of the selection of beautiful fish, but also of creating good conditions for their life. In the process of fish life, the water in the aquarium gradually becomes turbid from the remnants of food, medicinal and vitamin preparations. In addition, the fish need the presence of oxygen in the water, otherwise they will swim all the time on the surface or even get sick.
Why install a cleaning system in an aquarium?
Fish Tank Filters easily cope with water purification due to the presence of special barriers that keep pollution. By the principle of purification, these devices are divided into three types:
with mechanical filtration (direct retention of small dirt with a sponge or pressed crumb);
with chemical filtration (purification of water using activated carbon or other substances);
with biofiltration (water purification using bacteria).
Outside or inside?
By the way of placing the Fish Tank Filters are divided into two types – internal and external. As a rule, external ones are more powerful and are more often used for cleaning relatively large aquariums. But if you wish, a filter of any kind can be used in both small and large aquariums.
In this case, the choice is determined rather by the personal preferences of the owners. Someone more like the appearance of the aquarium with a particular type of cleaning, someone finds it more convenient for one type of attachment.
Objectively, you can select some of the main characteristics of different types:
the internal filter does not take up extra space while inside the aquarium;
the external one is more convenient to maintain, since for its cleaning it is not necessary to transplant the fish and act in the water, pulling out and then installing the device again;
the external filter has a higher cleaning capacity due to the fact that it has the ability to use several filtration materials placed in different containers;
there is also an opinion that the external filter better enriches water with oxygen, therefore it is preferable to choose it for those fish species for which this moment is especially important.
Installing an internal filter
As a rule, the installation of the internal filter in the home aquarium does not cause difficulties, due to the presence of a special suction mount. There are only a few points that should be taken into account.
First, the device itself must be immersed in water completely. Above the top should be at least 1.5-2 cm of water.
Secondly, the flexible hose connected to the filtering part must be brought to the outer wall of the aquarium. It is through him that air is supplied to the water.
Otherwise, install it quite easily. So, how to install a filter in an aquarium:
Replant the fish in another container with water, so as not to damage them during work.
You can install only off the filter.
Attach it to the desired height on the inner wall of the aquarium.
Connect the flexible hose and secure the outer edge of the hose to the top of the aquarium (usually there is a special fastening kit for this).
Turn on the device in the network.
We add that the air velocity regulator is better to first set to the middle position, and then to debug the work, based on the comfort of the condition of the fish. Some fish like to swim in a strong current, and some, on the contrary, feel uncomfortable in such conditions.
Never work in the water with the device included in the network! First you need to make sure that it is turned off and only then to regulate its operation. It is also impossible to leave the filter off for a long time, since its functions are very important for fish.
How to install an external filter
Here it is important first of all to assemble the structure correctly. It consists of the filter itself and two hoses, one of which takes the dirty water into the purification system, and the second removes it already cleaned.
According to the instructions in the box, carefully assemble the filter. It may consist of several containers that are filled with special material. The system cover should snap into place. (If this does not happen, check to see if the containers are full.)
Only after that, connect both hoses. Hose, releasing water, shorter filler.
Then fill with water both hoses and the filter itself, and only after that it will be possible to connect the device to the network.
Summarizing, we can say that installing a cleaning system for an aquarium does not cause any particular difficulties. You just need to choose a suitable model, follow the instructions and follow the basic safety rules:
Do not leave the device turned off for a long time in water. Moreover, do not turn it on after not cleaning it. Otherwise, the fish may be poisoned.
All manipulations in the water spend only after disconnecting the device from the network.
Never turn on the filter, not immersed in water, otherwise it may fail.
Do not forget to periodically clean the entire system.
Choosing a filter for an aquarium
If you love your pets – fish, snails, shrimps, then you probably want them to live comfortably and safely in an aquarium. An indispensable attribute of any tank with aquatic life will be one of the reliable filters. Learn more about the types of filters and filtering methods, as well as how to make a filter for the aquarium with your own hands.
You, as the owner of the aquarium, should always remember that the water with its inhabitants is a closed biological system, so its high-quality cleaning is vital for everyone in it. Recovery and full cycle of purification can not be achieved without a suitable filter with parameters selected in accordance with the size and contents of the tank.
This device is a compact box that is installed directly in the water – on one of the walls or on the bottom. The principle of operation is the simultaneous discharge of an air jet (aeration) and the passage of a stream of water through a filter.
In the unit itself, several processes occur at once:
- Mechanical trapping of large particles of garbage;
- Biological filtration due to beneficial bacteria that purify water;
- Chemical – in the presence of activated carbon filter or an ozonizer oxidizing organic waste in the filter canals.
The main work is performed by spongy material, which contains beneficial bacteria, picks up dirt and can serve as a substrate for chemical cleaners. Your task after installing the filter every three weeks to get a sponge and rinse it from the debris with a stream of water from the tap, then once with boiled cool water.
Despite the desire to clean the sponge clean, keep in mind that with any cleaning good bacteria die, and therefore it is impossible:
- wash the sponge with soap or other means;
- scald with boiling water;
- sterilized in any way.
It is recommended to install Aquael VersaMAX (China) for large tanks, Aquael Turbo Filter Professional for deep tanks, Aqua Szut Super Mini (Poland) for small tanks, JBL CristalProfi and Eheim for super-quality cleaning (Germany) from manufacturers of internal units. The principle works with these devices: the more expensive, the better.
The device is a tank that needs to be installed next to the tank, below the water level, connect the hoses and fill it with water. Lead the air, leave to work.
This device uses not only sponge material, but also a filler made of ceramic. That is, the quality of cleaning is much higher than that of internal ones. Such a unit cleans the dirt with a sponge and ceramics, and nitrogen contamination with good bacteria. They have the extra features of an ultraviolet sterilizer, a carbon dioxide reactor and a thermostat flow. It is necessary to clean much less often – about once a month.
Given that the principle of action itself involves the removal and pumping of large amounts of water outside the aquarium, it is especially important that all the details are of high quality, reliable and tightly closed. Chinese equipment is sold at an affordable price, but users are often dissatisfied with a complicated assembly – there is a fear that the pump will pump water onto your floor. It will happen trouble or not, but difficulties in assembling cause precisely such concerns.
The principle of operation is simple: a rectangular lattice structure several centimeters thick, so-called false, is placed in the tank. Special gravel with a diameter of 3-4 mm is laid on top with a layer of about 8 cm.
Through it, water is drawn into the tubes in the bottom, working from the pump. On the side wall upwards from the false one there is a cavity, which ends with a similarity of a watering can – through it, the drawn filtered water rises to the upper level and returns to the aquarium.
The advantages are quiet operation, perfect compactness and appearance, which does not spoil the view of the tank. The form itself provides a uniform flow of water. And on the gravel a decent colony of beneficial bacteria is formed, which on a wide plane qualitatively purify the water from ammonia.
Designs can be different, they are released rectangular and round shape. For a small round aquarium for 2-3 fish is what you need, because it is almost not visible.
But there are also disadvantages:
- low power of the pump, which makes it unsuitable for high density settlement of fish;
- bad for aquatic plants with a root system;
- dangerous for shrimp, fry and small snails, which fall into the gaps false and die.
Some aquarists consider tributaries an additional kind and recommend installing this type of filter along with a mechanical one.
This is a tray located on top of the tank and filled with substrate and plants. Plant roots are constantly washed by the flow of water coming to the tray through the airlift, pump or outlet tube of an external or internal filter. Then the water flows through the drainage holes back into the tank.
The trick is that active bacterial sludge is formed on the roots of plants, capturing fish from the water, such as nitrates, nitrites and phosphates. Plants eat – fish goes clean water. That is, it is also a biofilter for an aquarium, only a special design.
Make it very easy. It will look, of course, as it is – homemade, but it works fine and does not require any special expenses.
Prepare a plastic tray with drainage holes: width – as the width of the long wall of the aquarium, the depth and height are equal to at least 15 cm. At the bottom, pour the substrate: gravel, clay, crushed stone with a fraction of about 10 mm. Sand is absolutely not suitable. Plant the plants, bring the water in – the filter is ready.
Plant for phytofilter:
- creeping ficus (Ficus repens);
- Fittonia (Fittonia);
- Chlorophytum crested (Chlorophytum comosum);
- Tradescantia (Tradescantia);
- Aglaonema (Aglaonema);
- Philodendron (Philodendron);
- epipremnum golden (Epipremnum aureum, also known as sincapsus);
- rafidophora (Rhaphidophora);
- Cyperus (Cyperus).
The phyto-filter has one drawback – it is bulky and you can’t hide it. When selecting crops in a substrate, remember that the main thing is not the number of plants, but their developed root system.
So, there is a whole line of filters for the aquarium, each type with its own advantages and disadvantages. Choose sensibly: you want to save – there will be more work in the process, you want a minimum of care – take a quality machine. Follow our tips and enjoy the beauty of the home aquarium!
How to install Fish Tank Filter
If you decide to install an aquarium at home, then you can not do without an Fish Tank Filter. His choice should be treated with special attention, since the quality of water in your underwater kingdom will depend on this device.
To date, there are many varieties of Fish Tank Filters: internal, external, bottom, aerator filters, as well as filters that produce mechanical filtration (filter thread, sponge or crumb used as a filter), chemical filtration (using activated carbon or zeolite) , as well as biofiltration (microorganisms are used in the filter, which purify water from harmful impurities).
The filter must be selected based on the volume of the aquarium, as well as those functions that it will have to perform. For example, external filters are easy to use, and bottom filters help create a more favorable microflora in the aquarium, and they need to be cleaned every two to three years. For small aquariums, an ideal option would be a filter aerator, which combines the functions of cleaning and saturating water with oxygen. In any case, before you choose any specific filter, you should consult with a specialist.
Before you install the filter, carefully read the instructions. If you purchased a chemical filter, you must fill it with the adsorbent that comes with it.
Before installing the filter, prepare an aquarium. Rinse it thoroughly and fill it with water to see if the seams are leaking. Drain and place pre-prepared soil on the bottom of the aquarium. If you purchased a bottom filter, you must first install it under the ground. Pour about one third of the water, then plant the plants. If you choose an internal filter, then you need to install it at this very moment. Attach the filter with special velcro or retaining bracket, then fill the aquarium with water to the required level. An external filter can be installed after filling the aquarium with water.
After filling the aquarium, turn on the filter in order to check its operation. While the aquarium will be balanced (about two weeks), the filter must be kept on. As soon as you see that the water has disappeared from the water, then you can safely inhabit your underwater world with fish.
How to install Fish Tank Filter
How to install a filter in the aquarium
- – aquarium;
- – substrate (gravel or sand);
- – rack for aquarium;
- – water filter;
- – heater.
Find a suitable place for the aquarium. Ensure that no direct sunlight falls on it, because they can cause accelerated algae growth. Do not place the aquarium near sources of dust. Make sure that there is an electrical outlet near the aquarium or use an extension cord for the filter and heater.
Choose an aquarium. Consider at the same time, what fish and what plants you will put in it. The larger the adult fish, the larger you will need an aquarium. Pick up the aquarium so that it fits completely on the rack that you prepare for it. Do not allow the edges of the aquarium protruding beyond the edges of the rack. Find out the maximum weight of an aquarium filled with water and calculate whether your rack can withstand it. As a rack for containers, use special stands, for this purpose dressers, tables or any ordinary pedestals will not work.
Select a filter for water treatment. Before you buy a filter, pay attention to the speed of its operation and compare it with the volume of your aquarium. Ideally, for every 4 liters of aquarium, the filter should allow 20 liters of water per hour.
Pour 2–5 cm of water into the aquarium and check for leaks. If you find them, drain the water, dry the container and seal the holes with a sealant.
Rinse the substrate thoroughly (gravel or sand) with running water. Spread it evenly across the bottom of the aquarium and slowly pour in some water so that it does not wash away the substrate. Install a filter, but do not turn it on until the tank is filled with water. Press down the gravel with a plate and fill the tank to the end. Install a heater in the aquarium and heat the water to 21-25 ° C.
Fish must be gradually introduced into an established aquarium. Submerge 2-3 fish for ten days. Then add two more for the next ten days, etc. If you release all your fish into the aquarium at once, the water can quickly become filled with toxins and spoil.