Beginners aquarists, as a rule, buy small aquariums and very quickly become convinced that fry do not grow well in such aquariums, adult fish feel uncomfortable, and the height of water for plants is small. Such aquariums have to be changed to other, larger ones. In large aquariums, the population grows evenly, and more and more often you have to clean the aquarium from accumulating dirt.
As a rule, to maintain the cleanliness of the aquarium, various mud tappers are used, they regularly remove dirt from the bottom with a hose, and also use special filters. Via filter You can clean the water in the aquarium from dirt particles (dregs,) and at the same time saturate the water with oxygen, which is necessary for respiration of fish and other aquatic inhabitants.
As required, activated carbon is put into the filters, which absorbs from the water, dissolved harmful substances, peat for acidifying water, various pharmaceutical preparations that can have a beneficial effect on the inhabitants of the aquarium.
Functionally, filters are divided into internal and external.
The constructions of the internal filters are ordinary. They tend to have small sizes and poor performance. They function using a microcompressor that supplies air through a tube. Air bubbles rising in the tube capture water after themselves and raise it above the water level in the aquarium. The flow of water formed passes through the filtering material and thus the aquarium is cleaned of dirt. Such filters in accordance with the mechanism of operation are called airlift.
External filters most often used for large aquariums. They are put into operation by means of an electric pump, which drives the aquarium water through the filtering material in the filter housing. Such filters are complex, relatively large in size and installed near the aquarium or hung on its wall.
The performance of the filters, in other words, the volume of water that passes through the filter at a certain point in time, depends on the volume of air transferred by the compressor, as well as the size of the filter. Internal filters put on the ground (day), the wall and under the soil of the aquarium. During feeding, the inhabitants of the aquarium is better not to supply air, so that the food does not get into the filter and does not decompose inside it. The filter must often be cleaned of dirt, so that it does not divorce harmful bacteria.
In the form of a filtering material used fine or large quartz river sand (pre-washed and boiled), as well as synthetic fabric and thread (capron, nylon, and others). Also, waterproof foam is used as a filtering material, in large pores of which dirt is well accumulated.
Aquarists can offer several options for very simple, but very effective internal airlift filters, which are used for water purification in aquariums up to 100 liters. They can be easily made. do it yourself from scrap materials.
Making a bottom filter with a plastic box body
As a filter housing, a box with a tight-fitting lid can be used. To do this, you need to find a finished box (made of plastic). You can use a trimmed plastic bottle or glue it out of plexiglass.
In order to be able to observe the accumulation of dirt in the filter and timely clean the filter material from it, it is better that the body or the filter cover are made of a transparent material. A plastic tube with a diameter of 15-20 mm and a length of 150-200 mm is tightly inserted or glued into the housing cover. Air spray should be used ceramic purchased. In the side wall of the hull, a series of holes of such a diameter are made so that snails or fry cannot get through the inside of the filter. The filter housing is filled with filter material is not too tight. It should be noted that the efficiency of the filter largely depends on the operation of the sprayer, since the smaller the size of the air bubbles, the greater their total surface that comes into contact with water, in other words, the water is much better saturated with oxygen, therefore the water flow through the filtering material increases .
Making a bottom filter with a glass jar body
Another internal filter is possible do it yourself. A standard glass jar with a capacity of 0.4 to 1 liter is used as the filter housing. Its body is closed with a conventional plastic cap, in which holes are made for the entry of aquarium water, as well as an opening for the installation of the tube. From a similar cover, a partition is made (between the cover-partition, filter material is settled).