Aquariums are frame, glued from organic glass and all-glass. In very large aquariums (150–200 l.) The frame is made of angular iron (20×20 or 30×30 mm). Aquarium frame with a capacity of 60-70 liters is made of 1.5-2 mm galvanized iron. Their sizes can be the most various. It is important to ensure that normal conditions are provided for the fish. V. Remizov recommends the following types of aquariums for home use. The most common is amateur. This aquarium is usually rectangular in shape, most often 30–70 mm long, 30–40 wide, and 30–50 cm high. Amateur aquariums are usually most convenient for keeping aquarium fish and aquatic plants.
Very common are aquariums, screens. They differ from amateur ones by a smaller width, rarely exceeding 20 cm. Thanks to the small width, all its inhabitants are well visible. You can make and special purpose aquariums. These include: spawning, nursery (for fry and plants), jigging (for keeping adult fish), decorative, or artistic. The latter includes an aquarium picture.
Frameworks. Making aquarium begins with a frame that can be made from different materials and in different ways. The simplest way to make an electrofusion frame is from metal squares with shelves 15X15, 20×20 or 30X30 mm, depending on the size of the aquarium. The size of the “corner” is determined by the width of one of its sides (Table 1). Using this table, you can easily select the desired material.
The frame and squares are made at home. To do this, take aluminum sheet with a thickness of 1.5-2 mm or galvanized sheet and cut four strips along the length of the future aquarium and four in width and height. The width of the cut strips, depending on the size of the aquarium, can be 30, 40 or 60 mm. The cut strip is reinforced between two wooden bars so that half of the strip towers above them. The third wooden bar click on the protruding part of the strip and bend it. Then on top of the curved strip should put a wooden bar and knock on it with a hammer to get a square equal.
When all the squares are ready, you can start making the frame. If galvanized tin was used for the squares, then the framework should be soldered with tin or riveted with rivets; if the squares are made of aluminum material, then the frame can only be riveted.
It is best to use prefabricated aluminum and dural squares for the frame. The frame of these squares should also be riveted with aluminum rivets. In the manufacture of the frame must use a metalwork square and strictly ensure that all its corners are straight. The slightest distortion of the corners of the frame will have a negative effect when the glasses are greased.
Glasses. The thickness of the glass of the aquarium depends on its size. If the aquarium is small – with a capacity of 15–20 liters, then the glass may be 3 mm thick, with a capacity of 30–70 l — 4 mm, and over 70 l — 6–7 mm. In tab. 2 shows data on the glass thickness for aquariums with a metal frame .
The bottom of the aquarium is made of thicker glass. Glasses should be smooth, without air bubbles, scratches and cracks. They are cut so that the corners are straight. Squeezed into the frame, they should not push their edges on one another, as well as on the squares of the frame. To cut glass for the bottom, it is necessary to measure the frame on the inside from the rack to the rack in length and width. The resulting dimensions should be reduced by 5 mm. Such glass should be completely free to enter the frame. Next, cut the side windows along the length of the aquarium. Their height should be such that the glass placed on the bottom does not reach the top shelf of the upper square 7-8 mm. Last cut the front glass. Their height must be equal to the height of the side windows, and the width is such that they freely fit between the side windows in the frame; the gap between the panes should be at least 2-3 mm. You can not wipe glass into the frame that does not fit tightly into place, because they may burst over time.
Putty. Putty glass free of harmful impurities is suitable for sealing the glasses of the aquarium, since when dissolved in water they can cause fish poisoning. Let’s call some types of putties.
1. The simplest and, therefore, affordable putty is prepared as follows. Pour natural oil lacquer 4-C or 6-C into a clean tin (the amount of lacquer depends on the size of the aquarium) and add dry cement, sifted through a fine sieve. All this is well mixed, adding cement until the putty becomes thick (rolled up and put on the glass or plate the ball must retain its shape).
2. Composition: cement 40 g, rosin – 200, chalk in powder – 100, var – 50, beeswax – 20, drying oil – 100–150 g. All components, except for cement, are mixed and heated to the first signs of boiling, then the resulting composition is cooled to 50 ° and cement is kneaded on it .
3. You can make the putty from oil-resin varnish 7-C and dry powdered chalk with the addition of dried lead red lead (per 100 g of chalk 10 g of red lead). To repair the aquarium is better to use glue BF (in bottles). For the preparation of putty, you can use cement of any brand up to 500. Putty should not be dry and crumble.
Recently, some fans use putty made from cement and epoxy resins. For example, M. Popov recommends using glue from epoxy resin for gluing aquariums . It does not cause corrosion of metals, resistant to oils, acids, solvents, moisture and steam, indifferent to living organisms.
Vlazka glasses in the frame. Before vmazat glass into the frame, it is necessary to prepare eight thin sticks for spacers (four along the length of the aquarium and four – in width). They are needed in order to press the glass to the frame after the greasing. Measurement should be made on its inner edges. It should also take into account the thickness of the two glasses and a layer of putty (1.5-2 mm on each side). Then the frame on the inside and the glass on the edges, which they will come into contact with putty, must be cleaned with acetone or gasoline. After that, you can proceed to the glass lubrication. This difficult work must be done together. First wipe the bottom of the aquarium. Cooked putty evenly applied to the lower squares of the frame. Then the glass intended for the bottom is taken and carefully placed in the frame on the putty. Then, gently pressing, grind in until air bubbles remain between the glass and putty. The putty should be visible through the glass with an even black ribbon. After that, the frame is laid on its side along the length and the side glass is smeared in the same way. At this time, the work partner holds the bottom with two hands so that it does not fall. When one side window is already embedded, the frame is rotated so that it is on top. Partner at the time supports glass. In the same way as the first, the second glass is wiped. Then the frame with the three glass panes is turned upside down. To keep the side windows, between them in the middle of the aquarium, temporarily put two struts. After that, the frame is placed on the front side. Now face glass is wound. Next, the frame is turned over with plastered face glass upwards (the partner, having thrust one hand into the aquarium, holds it) and the last glass is wired in.
At the end of all this work, the almost finished aquarium is placed bottom down and spacers are installed at the corners at the top and bottom between the side and front glasses. The putty displaced from under the glass from the outside is carefully removed with the tip of a knife. At the bottom of the aquarium should put a weight weighing 1-1.5 kg, so that the bottom was well pressed to putty. In this position, the aquarium is left to dry. The duration of the drying of the aquarium depends on the composition of the putty. The putty made on the oil varnish dries for 2-3 days, on the linseed oil – 4-5 days, on epoxy resin – 24 hours. When the putty dries out, the spacers from the aquarium are removed and water is poured at room temperature. This is done to check if there are leaks in the aquarium. It is best to keep the water in the aquarium for a day. In order for all the chemicals in the putty to dissolve, the water must be changed twice, leaving it every day. If aviation sealant (putty) or other soft putty is used as a putty, the aquarium that has just been smeared out is not dried, and immediately filled with warm water (60-70 °). Water is poured carefully, it will immediately detect and eliminate leaks. An aquarium filled with water is left for at least a week. After that, the framework is primed outside, then painted with oil or enamel paint, and it will be better if it is coated with a light resistant varnish.