Very often I meet with such a situation, when aquarists newbies, buying such a cheap thing as an external filter, do not know how to properly set it up for introduction to work, and also to serve it properly.
But if the seller can help the buyer with the fillers and suggest how to correctly calculate the filter volume, starting from fish biomass, aquarium volume and other values. How to put into operation, start up, and after and maintain the filter, naturally all this will fall on the shoulders of the buyer.
The fact is that the external filter (just a filter on) is a rather complicated mechanism. It consists of a set of both large and small parts, which are assembled in a specific order, the order of which is not recommended to be broken.
But first, about the filter itself, and its components.
Before you begin to understand the filter and start folding this “non-child” designer, please read the instructions, it’s sufficiently accessible and schematically clear how the unit should be properly assembled.
The first thing to begin is the “head (head)” of the filter.
It houses the heart of our filter, the windings and a small magnetic anchor mounted on the porcelain axis.
The filter windings are filled with plastic, so you will not be able to look at them, but all the other gadgets are open enough for maintenance, just remove the small lid as you can see how the magnetic anchor is located with the impeller inside the head, which is easily removed from the porcelain axis, which by the way “sits "On shock absorbing rubber bushes.
For the sake of justice, it is worth noting that the axis should be made of porcelain, and not of stainless steel or titanium, as some manufacturers offer, since the contact of metal, even passive with aquarium water, is extremely undesirable.
Another head is sometimes supplied with a UV lamp and a circuit for its operation.
As a rule, the design allows access to the lamp for maintenance and replacement, and in very rare cases, access to the circuit (for repair)
Also the head sometimes has an on / off switch. and power cord.
On the head there are several fittings for connecting hoses or this is a special groove into which a block with hoses will be inserted. In this case, the block and the groove are shaped not allowing to put or fix the block in the wrong position, since it has a mechanism that both holds and fixes it.
The next part of the filter can be called the canister itself. In principle, there is nothing special in this part; a regular plastic container that has a certain shape, or a canister or head, is provided with two small handles for transporting the filter (frankly, sometimes very fragile).
The only thing that you should always pay attention to is the rubber gasket, which creates tightness between the head and the canister.
Naturally, it should be installed in a special groove and not have any microcracks or damage, just as you need to ensure that during the assembly there is no biting of the gasket.
The locking mechanism, quite complex for a beginner, the process of closing and pulling the head to the canister. In fact, nothing complicated in this way even 30 years ago connected halves of vacuum cleaners such as "Typhoon". Therefore, the handles located on the eccentrics allow you not only to compress the two parts of the filter (the head and the canister), but in certain cases also help to separate them.
Various fillers are placed in the canister itself, which produce water filtration.
Depending on how the manufacturers of the filter correctly calculated the permeability, turbulence and washing of the fillers with water, will affect the performance of the filter.
Most often, the fillers are placed in special cassettes, which are inserted into the filter in a specific order.
Fillers are served both in paper boxes and sealed in plastic bags.
The first mistake that all newbies make without exception is that the fillers are placed in cellophane in cassettes. Naturally, there is no sense from the filler in this case.
Let’s see a little about why a filter is needed, and what role certain fillers play (superficially, in your own words and without abstruse phrases)
So, the external filter, in contrast to the internal filter, has a much larger volume allowing it to accommodate a larger amount of filter materials, and, due to the structure of these materials, provide a larger area for the processing of bacteria. The filter is needed for mechanical, biological and chemical filtration.
Mechanical filtration, the filter allows you to clean the water from sludge, mists, turbidity and other small particles.
Biological filtration, fish and other inhabitants emit ammonia. Which over time is converted to nitrite, these are two dangerous products for life. But if the bacteria convert them to nitrates, then everything will be fine. So, the larger the surface area of the materials, the more porous the material, the more bacteria will settle. At a certain temperature of 28-30 * C. Bacteria will feel quite comfortable, the filter will perform biological filtration.
Chemical filtration, when the filter is able to filter residues from chemical. preparations, for example after treatment of fish, or clear water from staining water.
Water in the filter is fed through the hoses, an amazing thing, but no where in the literature, for some reason not a word was said about the maintenance of hoses.
In fact, this is one of the most important components in the maintenance of the filter.
The fact is that the flow rate of water passing through the filter is quite large. The normal operation of the filter for the aquarium will be when the filter can pass through itself 4! Aquarium volume per hour !!
Therefore, imagine how much water passes through the tubes.
As a rule, the tubes on the filter go externally corrugated, and inside are smooth, the corrugation is made to ensure that the tube does not bend when rounding, if you need to place the filter in the “wrong” place. Those. it is possible to bend the tube, but with a certain radius, the corrugation is also used so that at the moment of drawing in water, the tube is simply not flattened during discharge.
So, on the suction nozzle, especially at the bends and attachment points of taps, very often a deposit of sludge is formed, which over time turns into a dense crust which noticeably narrows the passage for the flow of water.
Tubes are cleaned with special brushes.
Also, special attention should be paid to the nozzles that are attached to the tubes.
One nozzle serves for the intake of water, and is equipped with a ball valve
In order to let the water down the tube, it is not at all necessary to force the air through the pump; it is enough to make several sharp movements up / down; the water with the help of the valve will rush to the bottom of the filter.
By the way, regarding the location of the filter, on many filters it is indicated which column of water is able to lift the filter to throw it back into the aquarium, usually it is about 1m20cm, so I do not recommend putting the filter on full hoses to the bottom (about 1.5m).
A nozzle for feeding water back to the aquarium. Here they are different, there are those who simply supply the pressure of the water creating a current, there are those who distribute this pressure through small holes along the entire length of the aquarium (flute), which are, together with the pressure of the water, serve finely dissected air. Which is able to enrich water with oxygen.
However, I can say the following with confidence.
IS ALWAYS! Keep track of the attachments on the glass of the aquarium with suction cups. Buy a sucker with a reserve, and as they wear out, always replace them with obviously working and well-sticky ones.
Since if you, because of the failure of the sucker, one of the hoses falls out of the aquarium, then you either burn the filter or the filter will suck out all the water from the aquarium and then it will burn itself.
For the same reason, always follow the attachment of the hoses to the plastic parts, as well as them with faucets that allow you to block the water that enters the filter.
The procedure for installing the filter.
7 As a rule, the water in the filters comes from the top to the bottom, so just in case, once again, follow the flow of water into the filter, so filter materials should be located.
Depending on the number of cassettes, the order of filling the filter is:
In the beginning, a foam rubber with a large cell is put, then a synthetic winterizer, then ceramics, then if there is sintered glass, then a zeolite, coal, and peat.
It should be noted that the coal does not work for a long time in the aquarium, its adsorbing properties do not have a very positive effect on the aquarium environment for a very long time, so after a few weeks it will have to be replaced, the coal is put only in a fresh aquarium.
8 Attach the plastic water intake to the hoses and the nozzle to supply water to the aquarium, install the suction cups.
9 turn off the taps on the hoses, if the valves on the hoses are opened using special levers, turn the levers in the “closed” position.
10 Immerse plastic nozzles in the inlet. Arrange the hoses as you like.
11 will fill the filter canister with filled sections. Check if they are installed correctly.
12 check the filter head (visually), whether the impeller with the rotor is installed in the nutria, whether the lid is tightly fixed that fixes the axis.
13 will immerse the head in a basin with water, so that it would be completely submerged under water and the top would be covered with scrapping water of thickness less than 7-19 cm.
14 briefly turn on the power. Sticking the plug into the network and turning on the switch.
If you see a characteristic column of water that rises from the filter, then the pump pumps water.
15 Take out the "head" from the pelvis, see if the lid of the locking axis has flown off the latches, if everything is fine, wipe the "head" dry.
16 place the head on the canister and gently press down to the point where the head around the perimeter will sit on the sealing gum.
When you don’t help yourself with the handles in this process, the eccentrics are not designed for such pressure and if you don’t correctly place the filler cartridges inside the canister, you simply break the handles.
17 after you have placed your head on the canister, snap the handles, if there are 4 of them, then they are latched crosswise if two then simultaneously.
18 put the filter to the place of its installation, and connect the hoses.
If you have taps on the hoses, then just open them, then water will be drawn into the filter from the bark when the tube is submerged from the bark.
If the ends of the hoses are equipped with a sleeping locking lever device, then when it is connected, the valves will open and the water will fill the filter.
Before filling the filter, prepare the volume of water that the filter from the aquarium will take away from you (roughly a bucket) as the filter is filled up, fill the aquarium with water so that the intake and discharge tubes are always in the water.
So, it is necessary to monitor the leakage of water, if somewhere there is a leakage of water, then immediately you need to stop filling the filter and fix the leakage.
19 after the filter has been filled with water, it is necessary to check all the connections, etc. again.
In case a filter is installed on the filter for squeezing air out of the system, it is necessary to bleed the air. Which wakes up from the nozzles in the aquarium.
20 apply voltage to the filter.
In began shortly.
For 5-10 seconds
Listen and see if everything goes. There has not been a regular appearance of any other sounds when the pump is running. In the filter there is still a lot of air, so it is possible that the pump will work with the surf, driving the accumulated air.
Help the filter expel the air with a hand pump from the system until it comes out.
21 during the next day conducts continuous monitoring of the filter. To listen to extraneous noise, stable operation, the presence of leaks.
22 in case of a drop in the water level in the aquarium, add water.
Watch for drip tips on the glasses, using suction cups.
Disassembling the filter for maintenance.
1 will purchase additional items that you need that have undergone wear, in case of a strong biological load of aquarium fish (sponges, synthetic winterizer, zeolite, coal, peat, etc.)
2 disable the filter from the network
3 Close the hoses to the tap or lever.
4 disconnect the hoses.
5 place the filter in the basin or in a large bucket.
6 open the handles if the handles have a function that allows you to help remove the cover, use it.
7 remove the cover.
9 take out the fillers
19 replace from
11 open the rotor chamber, removing the cover,
12 clean the rotor, the axle, the impeller from sludge and other mechanical debris, look at the integrity of the components, as well as on the presence of scuffs on the axis, in the event of a fault, replace the components.
13 Assemble the filter in the reverse order as recommended above.